โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆฝ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Plutonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืœื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Plutonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ—ใƒซใƒˆใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Plutônio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะŸะปัƒั‚ะพะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Plutonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Plutonium

Plutonium: the essentials

Plutonium atoms have 94 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.24.8.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral plutonium is [Rn].5f6.7s2 and the term symbol of plutonium is 7F0.

Plutonium: description  

Plutonium was the second transuranium element of the actinide series to be discovered. By far of greatest importance is the isotope 239Pu, which has a half-life of more than 20000 years. One kilogram is equivalent to about 22 million kilowatt hours of heat energy. The complete detonation of a kilogram of plutonium produces an explosion equal to about 20000 tons of chemical explosive. The various nuclear applications of plutonium are well known. The isotope 233Pu was used in the American Apollo lunar missions to power seismic and other equipment on the lunar surface. Plutonium contamination is an emotive environmental problem.

plutonium dioxide
Plutonium dioxide, PuO2. Image adapted with permission from Prof James Marshall's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

Plutonium: physical properties

More physical properties...

Plutonium: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Plutonium: atom sizes

More atomc size properties...

Plutonium: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Plutonium: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Plutonium: abundances

More geological data...

Plutonium: crystal structure

Pu crystal structure
The solid state structure of plutonium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Plutonium: biological data

Plutonium has no biological role.

More biological data...

Plutonium: uses

Uses...

Plutonium: reactions

Reactions of plutonium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Plutonium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of plutonium where known.

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Plutonium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of plutonium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Plutonium: history

Plutonium was discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg , J. W. Kennedy, E. M. McMillan, A. C. Wahl in 1940 at USA. Origin of name: named after "the planet Pluto".

More history...

Plutonium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of plutonium
Isotope abundances of plutonium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

More isotope and NMR data...

Plutonium: isolation

Isolation: coming soon!