โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Thallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ˆ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Thallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Thallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Thallium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืชืœื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Tallio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฟใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Tálio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะขะฐะปะปะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Talio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Tallium

Thallium: the essentials

Thallium atoms have 81 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.3. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral thallium is [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p1 and the term symbol of thallium is 2P1/2.

Thallium: description  

When freshly exposed to air, thallium exhibits a metallic lustre, but soon develops a bluish-grey tinge, resembling lead in appearance. A heavy oxide builds up on thallium if left in air, and in the presence of water the hydroxide is formed. The metal is very soft and malleable. It can be cut with a knife.

The element and its compounds are toxic and should be handled carefully. Thallium may cause cancer.

thallium

Science and Ink cartoon for thallium
Cartoon by Nick D Kim ([Science and Ink], used by permission).

Thallium: physical properties

More physical properties...

Thallium: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Thallium: atom sizes

More atomc size properties...

Thallium: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Thallium: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Thallium: abundances

More geological data...

Thallium: crystal structure

Tl crystal structure
The solid state structure of thallium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Thallium: biological data

Thallium has no biological role. Thallium compounds are extremely toxic. Their effects are cumulative and they can be absorbed though the skin. Thallium poisoning takes several days to act and it affects the nervous system.

More biological data...

Thallium: uses

Uses...

Thallium: reactions

Reactions of thallium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

View reactions of thallium...

Thallium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of thallium where known.

View binary compounds...

Thallium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of thallium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

View compound properties...

Thallium: history

Thallium was discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 at England. Origin of name: from the Greek word "thallos" meaning "green twig" or green shoot.

More history...

Thallium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of thallium
Isotope abundances of thallium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

Thallium has two stable isotopes and one of these, Tl-203, is used to produce one of the (workhorses( of nuclear medicine: Tl-201. Tl-201 is used extensively for imaging and in particular for perfusion tests of the myocardium. These tests are done to determine the damage to the heart from a heart attack or from heart diseases. Tl205 has been proposed as an alternative target for the production of Tl-201. Tl-205 is also used in nuclear magnetic resonance research.

More isotope and NMR data...

Thallium: isolation

Isolation: thallium metal would not normally be made in the laboratory as it is available commercially. Crude thallium is present as a component in flue dust along with arsenic, cadmium, indium, germanium, lead, nickel, selenium, tellurium, and zinc. This is done by dissolving in dilute acid, precipitating out lead sulphate, and then adding HCl to precipitate thallium chloride, TlCl. Further purification can be achieve by electrolysis of soluble thallium salts.