โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Nitrogen
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆฐฎ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Stikstof
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Azote
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Stickstoff
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื—ื ืงืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Azoto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ็ช’็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Nitrogênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะทะพั‚
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Nitrógeno
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Kväve

Nitrogen: the essentials

Nitrogen atoms have 7 electrons and the shell structure is 2.5. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral nitrogen is [He].2s2.2p3 and the term symbol of nitrogen is 4S3/2.

Nitrogen: description  

Nitrogen is a Group 15 element. Nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere by volume but the atmosphere of Mars contains less than 3% nitrogen. The element seemed so inert that Lavoisier named it azote, meaning "without life". However, its compounds are vital components of foods, fertilizers, and explosives. Nitrogen gas is colourless, odourless, and generally inert. As a liquid it is also colourless and odourless.

When nitrogen is heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium. When mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms nitric oxide (NO) and then the dioxide (NO2). When heated under pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a suitable catalyst , ammonia forms (Haber process). Nitrogen is "fixed" from the atmosphere by bacteria in the roots of certain plants such as clover. Hence the usefulness of clover in crop rotation.

nitrogen
Image adapted with permission from Prof James Marshall's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

Nitrogen: physical properties

More physical properties...

Nitrogen: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Nitrogen: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Nitrogen: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Nitrogen: abundances

More geological data...

Nitrogen: crystal structure

N crystal structure
The solid state structure of nitrogen is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Nitrogen: biological data

Nitrogen is a key component of biological molecules such as proteins (which are made from amino acids, and nucleic acids. The nitrogen cycle in nature is very important.

More biological data...

Nitrogen: uses

Uses...

Nitrogen: reactions

Reactions of nitrogen as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Nitrogen: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of nitrogen where known.

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Nitrogen: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of nitrogen halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Nitrogen: history

Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772 at Scotland. Origin of name: from the Greek words "nitron genes" meaning "nitre" and "forming" and the Latin word "nitrum" (nitre is a common name for potassium nitrate, KNO#).

More history...

Nitrogen: isotopes

Isotope abundances of nitrogen
Isotope abundances of nitrogen with the most intense signal set to 100%.

Nitrogen has two isotopes, N-14 and N-15, both of which are used in various applications. N-15 is used for the production of the radioisotope O-15 which is used in PET. N-15 is also used to study the uptake of Nitrogen in plants and the metabolism of proteins in the human body. N-14 is used for the production of the PET radioisotope C-11. It can also be used for the production of the PET radioisotopes N-13 and O-15.

More isotope and NMR data...

Nitrogen: isolation

Isolation: there is never any need to make nitrogen in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially or through in-house air liquefaction plants. However the decomposition of sodium azide is one route to N2 and decomposition is ammonium dichromate is another. Both reactions must only be carried out under controlled conditions by a professional.

NaN3 (300°C) → 2Na + 3N2

(NH4)2Cr2O7 → N2 + Cr2O3 + 4H2O

Nitrogen is made on massive scale by liquefaction of air and fractional distillation of the resulting liquid air to separate out oxygen and other gases. Very high purity nitrogen is available by this route.