Manganese: properties of free atoms

Manganese atoms have 25 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.13.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral manganese is  [Ar].3d5.4s2 and the term symbol is  6S5/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of manganese.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic manganese

Electronic configuration of manganese

The electronic configuration of manganese.

Kossel shell structure of manganese

The Kossel shell structure of manganese.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of manganese is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of manganese are given below.

Ionisation energies of manganese
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st717.3
2nd1509.0
3rd3248
4th4940
5th6990
6th9220
7th11500
8th18770
9th21400
10th23960
11th27590
12th30330
13th33150
14th38880
15th41987
16th109480
17th118100
18th127100
19th138600
20th148500
21st158600

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for manganese
1s24.40  
2s17.79 2p21.08  
3s13.02 3p12.11 3d10.53  
4s5.28 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for manganese. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s6539 [1]
L I2s769.1 [3]
L II2p1/2649.9 [3]
L III2p3/2638.7 [3]
M I3s82.3 [3]
M II3p1/247.2 [3]
M III3p3/247.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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