Nitrogen: properties of free atoms

Nitrogen atoms have 7 electrons and the shell structure is  2.5.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral nitrogen is  [He].2s2.2p3 and the term symbol is  4S3/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of nitrogen.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic nitrogen

Electronic configuration of nitrogen

The electronic configuration of nitrogen.

Kossel shell structure of nitrogen

The Kossel shell structure of nitrogen.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of nitrogen is 7 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of nitrogen are given below.

Ionisation energies of nitrogen
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1402.3
2nd2856
3rd4578.1
4th7475.0
5th9444.9
6th53266.6
7th64360

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for nitrogen
1s6.67  
2s3.85 2p3.83  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for nitrogen. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s409.9 [2]
L I2s37.3 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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