Copper: properties of free atoms

Copper atoms have 29 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral copper is  [Ar].3d10.4s1 and the term symbol is  2S1/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of copper.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic copper

Electronic configuration of copper

The electronic configuration of copper.

Kossel shell structure of copper

The Kossel shell structure of copper.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of copper is 118.4 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of copper are given below.

Ionisation energies of copper
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st745.5
2nd1957.9
3rd3555
4th5536
5th7700
6th9900
7th13400
8th16000
9th19200
10th22400
11th25600
12th35600
13th38700
14th42000
15th46700
16th50200
17th53700
18th61100
19th64702
20th163700
21st174100

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for copper
1s28.34  
2s21.02 2p25.10  
3s15.59 3p14.73 3d13.20  
4s5.84 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for copper. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s8979 [1]
L I2s1096.7 [3]
L II2p1/2952.3 [3]
L III2p3/2932.7 [1]
M I3s122.5 [3]
M II3p1/277.3 [3]
M III3p3/275.1 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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