Krypton: properties of free atoms

Krypton atoms have 36 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.8.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral krypton is  [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p6 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of krypton.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic krypton

Electronic configuration of krypton

The electronic configuration of krypton.

Kossel shell structure of krypton

The Kossel shell structure of krypton.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of krypton is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of krypton are given below.

Ionisation energies of krypton
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1350.8
2nd2350.4
3rd3565
4th5070
5th6240
6th7570
7th10710
8th12138
9th22274
10th25880
11th29700
12th33800
13th37700
14th43100
15th47500
16th52200
17th57100
18th61800
19th75800
20th80400
21st85300

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for krypton
1s35.23  
2s26.40 2p32.05  
3s21.03 3p20.43 3d20.63  
4s11.32 4p9.77 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for krypton. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s14326 [1]
L I2s1921 [1]
L II2p1/21730.9 [2]
L III2p3/21678.4 [2]
M I3s292.8 [2]
M II3p1/2222.2 [2]
M III3p3/2214.4 [1]
M IV3d3/295 [2]
M V3d5/293.8 [2]
N I4s27.5 [2]
N II4p1/214.1 [2]
N III4p3/214.1 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

WebElements Shop

You can buy periodic table posters, mugs, T-shirts, fridge magnets, games, molecular models, and more at the WebElements shop