Chlorine: properties of free atoms

Chlorine atoms have 17 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.7.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral chlorine is  [Ne].3s2.3p5 and the term symbol is  2P3/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of chlorine.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic chlorine

Electronic configuration of chlorine

The electronic configuration of chlorine.

Kossel shell structure of chlorine

The Kossel shell structure of chlorine.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of chlorine is 349.0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of chlorine are given below.

Ionisation energies of chlorine
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1251.2
2nd2298
3rd3822
4th5158.6
5th6542
6th9362
7th11018
8th33604
9th38600
10th43961
11th51068
12th57118
13th63363
14th72341
15th78095
16th352992
17th380758

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for chlorine
1s16.52  
2s11.43 2p12.99  
3s7.07 3p6.12 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for chlorine. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s2822 [1]
L I2s270 [2]
L II2p1/2202 [2]
L III2p3/2200 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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