Molybdenum: properties of free atoms

Molybdenum atoms have 42 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.13.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral molybdenum is  [Kr].4d5.5s1 and the term symbol is  7S3.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of molybdenum.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic molybdenum

Electronic configuration of molybdenum

The electronic configuration of molybdenum.

Kossel shell structure of molybdenum

The Kossel shell structure of molybdenum.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of molybdenum is 71.9 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of molybdenum are given below.

Ionisation energies of molybdenum
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st684.3
2nd1560
3rd2618
4th4480
5th5257
6th6640.8
7th12125
8th13860
9th15835
10th17980
11th20190
12th22219
13th26930
14th29196
15th52490
16th55000
17th61400
18th67700
19th74000
20th80400
21st87000

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for molybdenum
1s41.13  
2s30.88 2p37.97  
3s25.98 3p25.51 3d27.33  
4s16.41 4p15.05 4d12.44 4f(no data)
5s6.98 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for molybdenum. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s20000 [1]
L I2s2866 [1]
L II2p1/22625 [1]
L III2p3/22520 [1]
M I3s506.3 [3]
M II3p1/2411.6 [3]
M III3p3/2394 [3]
M IV3d3/2231.1 [3]
M V3d5/2227.9 [3]
N I4s63.2 [3]
N II4p1/237.6 [3]
N III4p3/235.5 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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