Carbon: properties of free atoms

Carbon atoms have 6 electrons and the shell structure is  2.4.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral carbon is  [He].2s2.2p2 and the term symbol is  3P0.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of carbon.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic carbon

Electronic configuration of carbon

The electronic configuration of carbon.

Kossel shell structure of carbon

The Kossel shell structure of carbon.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of carbon is 153.9 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of carbon are given below.

Ionisation energies of carbon
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1086.5
2nd2352.6
3rd4620.5
4th6222.7
5th37831
6th47277.0

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for carbon
1s5.67  
2s3.22 2p3.14  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for carbon. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s284.2 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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