Bromine: properties of free atoms

Bromine atoms have 35 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.7.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral bromine is  [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p5 and the term symbol is  2P3/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of bromine.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic bromine

Electronic configuration of bromine

The electronic configuration of bromine.

Kossel shell structure of bromine

The Kossel shell structure of bromine.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of bromine is 324.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of bromine are given below.

Ionisation energies of bromine
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1139.9
2nd2103
3rd3470
4th4560
5th5760
6th8550
7th9940
8th18600

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for bromine
1s34.25  
2s25.64 2p31.06  
3s20.22 3p19.57 3d19.56  
4s10.55 4p9.03 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for bromine. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s13474 [1]
L I2s1782 [2]
L II2p1/21596 [2]
L III2p3/21550 [2]
M I3s257 [2]
M II3p1/2189 [2]
M III3p3/2182 [2]
M IV3d3/270 [2]
M V3d5/269 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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