Francium: properties of free atoms

Francium atoms have 87 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.8.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral francium is  [Rn].7s1 and the term symbol is  2S1/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of francium.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic francium

Electronic configuration of francium

The electronic configuration of francium.

Kossel shell structure of francium

The Kossel shell structure of francium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of francium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of francium are given below.

Ionisation energies of francium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st380

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for francium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for francium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s101137 [1]
L I2s18639 [1]
L II2p1/217907 [1]
L III2p3/215031 [1]
M I3s4652 [1]
M II3p1/24327 [1]
M III3p3/23663 [1]
M IV3d3/23136 [1]
M V3d5/23000 [1]
N I4s1153 [2]
N II4p1/2980 [2]
N III4p3/2810 [2]
N IV4d3/2603 [2]
N V4d5/2577 [2]
N VI4f5/2268 [2]
N VII4f7/2268 [2]
O I5s234 [2]
O II5p1/2182 [2]
O III5p3/2140 [2]
O IV5d3/258 [2]
O V5d5/258 [2]
P I6s34 [1]
P II6p1/215 [1]
P III6p3/215 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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