Bismuth: properties of free atoms

Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.5.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral bismuth is  [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p3 and the term symbol is  4S3/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of bismuth.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic bismuth

Electronic configuration of bismuth

The electronic configuration of bismuth.

Kossel shell structure of bismuth

The Kossel shell structure of bismuth.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of bismuth is 91.2 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of bismuth are given below.

Ionisation energies of bismuth
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st703
2nd1610
3rd2466
4th4370
5th5400
6th8520

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for bismuth
1s81.40  
2s61.18 2p78.47  
3s58.89 3p59.93 3d69.54  
4s47.71 4p46.85 4d45.24 4f45.07
5s31.03 5p29.02 5d24.24  
6s15.24 6p13.34  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for bismuth. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s90526 [1]
L I2s16388 [1]
L II2p1/215711 [1]
L III2p3/213419 [1]
M I3s3999 [1]
M II3p1/23696 [1]
M III3p3/23177 [1]
M IV3d3/22688 [1]
M V3d5/22580 [1]
N I4s939 [3]
N II4p1/2805.2 [3]
N III4p3/2678.8 [3]
N IV4d3/2464 [3]
N V4d5/2440.1 [3]
N VI4f5/2162.3 [3]
N VII4f7/2157 [3]
O I5s159.3 [2, values derived from reference 1]
O II5p1/2119 [3]
O III5p3/292.6 [3]
O IV5d3/226.9 [3]
O V5d5/223.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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