Uranium: properties of free atoms

Uranium atoms have 92 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.21.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral uranium is  [Rn].5f3.6d1.7s2 and the term symbol is  5L6.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of uranium.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic uranium

Electronic configuration of uranium

The electronic configuration of uranium.

Kossel shell structure of uranium

The Kossel shell structure of uranium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of uranium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of uranium are given below.

Ionisation energies of uranium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st597.6
2nd1420

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for uranium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for uranium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s115606 [1]
L I2s21757 [1]
L II2p1/220948 [1]
L III2p3/217166 [1]
M I3s5548 [1]
M II3p1/25182 [1]
M III3p3/24303 [1]
M IV3d3/23728 [1]
M V3d5/23552 [1]
N I4s1439 [2, values derived from reference 1]
N II4p1/21271 [2, values derived from reference 1]
N III4p3/21043 [3]
N IV4d3/2778.3 [3]
N V4d5/2736.2 [3]
N VI4f5/2388.2 [2]
N VII4f7/2377.4 [3]
O I5s321 [2, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime, values derived from reference 1]
O II5p1/2257 [2, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime, values derived from reference 1]
O III5p3/2192 [2, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime, values derived from reference 1]
O IV5d3/2102.8 [3]
O V5d5/294.2 [3]
P I6s43.9 [3]
P II6p1/226.8 [3]
P III6p3/216.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

WebElements Shop

You can buy periodic table posters, mugs, T-shirts, fridge magnets, games, molecular models, and more at the WebElements shop