Sodium: properties of free atoms

Sodium atoms have 11 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral sodium is  [Ne].3s1 and the term symbol is  2S1/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of sodium.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic sodium

Electronic configuration of sodium

The electronic configuration of sodium.

Kossel shell structure of sodium

The Kossel shell structure of sodium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of sodium is 52.8 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of sodium are given below.

Ionisation energies of sodium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st495.8
2nd4562
3rd6910.3
4th9543
5th13354
6th16613
7th20117
8th25496
9th28932
10th141362
11th159075

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for sodium
1s10.63  
2s6.57 2p6.80  
3s2.51 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for sodium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s1070.8 [3]
L I2s63.5 [3]
L II2p1/230.4 [3]
L III2p3/230.5 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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