Cadmium: properties of free atoms
Cadmium atoms have 48 electrons and the shell structure is 188.8.131.52.2.
The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral cadmium is [Kr].4d10.5s2 and the term symbol is 1S0.
A representation of the atomic spectrum of cadmium.
Electronic configuration of neutral atomic cadmium
The electronic configuration of cadmium.
The Kossel shell structure of cadmium.
Ionisation Energies and electron affinity
|Ionisation energy number||Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1|
Effective Nuclear Charges
The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.
|5s||8.19||5p||(no data)||5d||(no data)|
|6s||(no data)||6p||(no data)|
These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:
- E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
- E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.
Electron binding energies
|Label||Orbital||eV [literature reference]|
|L I||2s||4018 |
|L II||2p1/2||3727 |
|L III||2p3/2||3538 |
|M I||3s||772 |
|M II||3p1/2||652.6 |
|M III||3p3/2||618.4 |
|M IV||3d3/2||411.9 |
|M V||3d5/2||405.2 |
|N I||4s||109.8 |
|N II||4p1/2||63.9 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]|
|N III||4p3/2||63.9 [3, one-particle approximation not valid owing to short core-hole lifetime]|
|N IV||4d3/2||11.7 |
|N V||4d5/2||10.7 |
I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).
- J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
- M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
- Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
- D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
- J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.