Phosphorus: properties of free atoms

Phosphorus atoms have 15 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.5.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral phosphorus is  [Ne].3s2.3p3 and the term symbol is  4S3/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of phosphorus.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic phosphorus

Electronic configuration of phosphorus

The electronic configuration of phosphorus.

Kossel shell structure of phosphorus

The Kossel shell structure of phosphorus.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of phosphorus is 72 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of phosphorus are given below.

Ionisation energies of phosphorus
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1011.8
2nd1907
3rd2914.1
4th4963.6
5th6273.9
6th21267
7th25431
8th29872
9th35905
10th40950
11th46261
12th54110
13th59024
14th271790
15th296194

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for phosphorus
1s14.56  
2s9.83 2p10.96  
3s5.64 3p4.89 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for phosphorus. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s2145.5 [1]
L I2s189 [2]
L II2p1/2136 [2]
L III2p3/2135 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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