Zinc: properties of free atoms

Zinc atoms have 30 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral zinc is  [Ar].3d10.4s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of zinc.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic zinc

Electronic configuration of zinc

The electronic configuration of zinc.

Kossel shell structure of zinc

The Kossel shell structure of zinc.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of zinc is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of zinc are given below.

Ionisation energies of zinc
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st906.4
2nd1733.3
3rd3833
4th5731
5th7970
6th10400
7th12900
8th16800
9th19600
10th23000
11th26400
12th29990
13th40490
14th43800
15th47300
16th52300
17th55900
18th59700
19th67300
20th71200
21st179100

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for zinc
1s29.32  
2s21.83 2p26.10  
3s16.22 3p15.37 3d13.88  
4s5.97 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for zinc. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s9659 [1]
L I2s1196.2 [2]
L II2p1/21044.9 [2]
L III2p3/21021.8 [2]
M I3s139.8 [2]
M II3p1/291.4 [2]
M III3p3/288.6 [2]
M IV3d3/210.2 [2]
M V3d5/210.1 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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