Scandium: properties of free atoms

Scandium atoms have 21 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral scandium is  [Ar].3d1.4s2 and the term symbol is  2D3/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of scandium.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic scandium

Electronic configuration of scandium

The electronic configuration of scandium.

Kossel shell structure of scandium

The Kossel shell structure of scandium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of scandium is 18.1 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of scandium are given below.

Ionisation energies of scandium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st633.1
2nd1235.0
3rd2388.6
4th7090.6
5th8843
6th10679
7th13310
8th15250
9th17370
10th21726
11th24102
12th66320
13th73010
14th80160
15th89490
16th97400
17th105600
18th117000
19th124270
20th547530
21st582163

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for scandium
1s20.46  
2s14.57 2p17.05  
3s10.34 3p9.41 3d7.12  
4s4.63 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for scandium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s4492 [1]
L I2s498 [2]
L II2p1/2403.6 [2]
L III2p3/2398.7 [2]
M I3s51.1 [2]
M II3p1/228.3 [2]
M III3p3/228.3 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

WebElements Shop

You can buy periodic table posters, mugs, T-shirts, fridge magnets, games, molecular models, and more at the WebElements shop