Tungsten: properties of free atoms

Tungsten atoms have 74 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.12.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral tungsten is  [Xe].4f14.5d4.6s2 and the term symbol is  5D0.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of tungsten.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic tungsten

Electronic configuration of tungsten

The electronic configuration of tungsten.

Kossel shell structure of tungsten

The Kossel shell structure of tungsten.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of tungsten is 78.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of tungsten are given below.

Ionisation energies of tungsten
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st770
2nd1700

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for tungsten
1s72.57  
2s54.67 2p69.57  
3s51.87 3p52.62 3d60.45  
4s40.56 4p39.55 4d37.17 4f34.71
5s23.54 5p21.33 5d16.74  
6s9.85 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for tungsten. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s69525 [1]
L I2s12100 [1]
L II2p1/211544 [1]
L III2p3/210207 [1]
M I3s2820 [1]
M II3p1/22575 [1]
M III3p3/22281 [1]
M IV3d3/21949 [1]
M V3d5/21809 [1]
N I4s594.1 [3]
N II4p1/2490.4 [3]
N III4p3/2423.6 [3]
N IV4d3/2255.9 [3]
N V4d5/2243.5 [3]
N VI4f5/233.6 [2]
N VII4f7/231.4 [3]
O I5s75.6 [3]
O II5p1/245.3 [2, values derived from reference 1]
O III5p3/236.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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