Nickel: properties of free atoms

Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.16.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral nickel is  [Ar].3d8.4s2 and the term symbol is  3F4.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of nickel.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic nickel

Electronic configuration of nickel

The electronic configuration of nickel.

Kossel shell structure of nickel

The Kossel shell structure of nickel.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of nickel is 112 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of nickel are given below.

Ionisation energies of nickel
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st737.1
2nd1753.0
3rd3395
4th5300
5th7339
6th10400
7th12800
8th15600
9th18600
10th21670
11th30970
12th34000
13th37100
14th41500
15th44800
16th48100
17th55101
18th58570
19th148700
20th159000
21st169400

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for nickel
1s27.35  
2s20.21 2p24.10  
3s14.96 3p14.09 3d12.53  
4s5.71 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for nickel. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s8333 [1]
L I2s1008.6 [3]
L II2p1/2870 [3]
L III2p3/2852.7 [3]
M I3s110.8 [3]
M II3p1/268 [3]
M III3p3/266.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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