Vanadium: properties of free atoms

Vanadium atoms have 23 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.11.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral vanadium is  [Ar].3d3.4s2 and the term symbol is  4F3/2.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of vanadium.

Electronic configuration of neutral atomic vanadium

Electronic configuration of vanadium

The electronic configuration of vanadium.

Kossel shell structure of vanadium

The Kossel shell structure of vanadium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of vanadium is 50.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of vanadium are given below.

Ionisation energies of vanadium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st650.9
2nd1414
3rd2830
4th4507
5th6298.7
6th12363
7th14530
8th16730
9th19860
10th22240
11th24670
12th29730
13th32446
14th86450
15th94170
16th102300
17th112700
18th121600
19th130700
20th143400
21st151440

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for vanadium
1s22.43  
2s16.18 2p19.07  
3s11.71 3p10.79 3d8.98  
4s4.98 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for vanadium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s5465 [1]
L I2s626.7 [3]
L II2p1/2519.8 [3]
L III2p3/2512.1 [3]
M I3s66.3 [3]
M II3p1/237.2 [3]
M III3p3/237.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.

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