Titanium: reactions of elements

Reaction of titanium with air

Titanium metal is coated with an oxide layer that usually renders it inactive. However once titanium starts to burn in air it burns with a spectacular white flame to form titanium dioxide, TiO2 and titanium nitride, TiN. Titanium metal even burns in pure nitrogen to form titanium nitride.

Ti(s) + O2(g) → TiO2(s)

2Ti(s) + N2(g) → TiN(s)

Reaction of titanium with water

Titanium metal is coated with an oxide layer that usually renders it inactive. However, titanium will react with steam form the dioxide, titanium(IV) oxide, TiO2, and hydrogen, H2.

Ti(s) + 2H2O(g) → TiO2(s) + 2H2(g)

Reaction of titanium with the halogens

Titanium does react with the halogens upon warming to form titanium(IV) halides. The reaction with fluorine requires heating to 200°C. So, titanium reacts with fluorine, F2, chlorine, Cl2, bromine, I2, and iodine, I2, to form respectively titanium(IV) bromide, TiF, titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl, titanium(IV) bromide, TiBr, and titanium(IV) iodide, TiI.

Ti(s) + 2F2(g) → TiF4(s) [white]

Ti(s) + 2Cl2(g) → TiCl4(l) [colourless]

Ti(s) + 2Br2(g) → TiBr4(s) [orange]

Ti(s) + 2I2(g) → TiI4(s) [dark brown]

Reaction of titanium with acids

Dilute aqueous hydrofluoric acid, HF, reacts with titanium to form the complex anion [TiF6]3- together with hydrogen, H2.

2Ti(s) + 12HF(aq) → 2[TiF6]3-(aq) + 3H2(g) + 6H+(aq)

Titanium metal does not react with mineral acids at ambient temperature but does react with hot hydrochloric acic to form titanium(III) complexes.

Reaction of titanium with bases

Titanium does not appear to react wih alkalis under normal conditions, even when hot.

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