Chemical reactions of the elements
Reaction of dysprosium with air
Dysprosium metal tarnishes slowly in air and burns readily to form dysprosium (III) oxide, Dy2O3.
4Dy + 3O2 → 2Dy2O3
Reaction of dysprosium with water
The silvery white metal dysprosium is quite electropositive and reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form dysprosium hydroxide, Dy(OH)3, and hydrogen gas (H2).
2Dy(s) + 6H2O(g) → 2Dy(OH)3(aq) + 3H2(g)
Reaction of dysprosium with the halogens
Dysprosium metal reacts with all the halogens to form dysprosium(III) halides. So, it reacts with fluorine, F2, chlorine, Cl2, bromine, I2, and iodine, I2, to form respectively dysprosium(III) bromide, DyF3, dysprosium(III) chloride, DyCl3, dysprosium(III) bromide, DyBr3, and dysprosium(III) iodide, DyI3.
2Dy(s) + 3F2(g) → 2DyF3(s) [green]
2Dy(s) + 3Cl2(g) → 2DyCl3(s) [white]
2Dy(s) + 3Br2(g) → 2DyBr3(s) [white]
2Dy(s) + 3I2(g) → 2DyI3(s) [green]
Reaction of dysprosium with acids
Dysprosium metal dissolves readily in dilute sulphuric acid to form solutions containing the yellow aquated Dy(III) ion together with hydrogen gas, H2. It is quite likely that Dy3+(aq) exists as largely the complex ion [Dy(OH2)9]3+
2Dy(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) → 2Dy3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq) + 3H2(g)
Reaction of dysprosium with bases