Chemical reactions of the elements
Reaction of antimony with air
Upon heating, antimony reacts with oxygen in air to form the trioxide antimony(III) oxide, Sb2O3. The flame is bluish white.
4Sb(s) + 3O2(g) → 2sb2O3(s)
Reaction of antimony with water
At red heat, antimony reacts with water to form the trioxide antimony(III) oxide, Sb2O3. Antimony reacts moreslowly at ambient temperatures.
2Sb(s) + 3H2O(g) → Sb2O3(s) + 3H2(g)
Reaction of antimony with the halogens
Antimony reacts under controlled conditions with the halogens fluorine, F2, chlorine, Cl2, bromine, Br2, and iodine, I2, to form the respective trihalides antimony(III) fluoride, SbF3, antimony(III) chloride, SbCl3, antimony(III) bromide, SbBr3, and antimony(III) iodide, SbI3.
2Sb(s) + 3F2(g) → 2SbF3(s) [white]
2Sb(s) + 3Cl2(g) → 2SbCl3(s) [white]
2Sb(s) + 3Br2(g) → 2SbBr3(s) [white]
2Sb(s) + 3I2(g) → 2SbI3(s) [red]
Reaction of antimony with acids
Antimony dissolves in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4, or nitric acid, HNO3, to form solutions containing Sb(III). The sulphuric acid reaction produces sulphur(IV) dioxide gas. Antimony does not react with hydrochloric acid in the absence of oxygen.
Reaction of antimony with bases