Isotopes of sulfur

Sulfur isotopes are mainly used in medical applications. S-33 is used for the production of the therapeutic radioisotope P-33. S-32 is used for the production of the radioisotope P-32 which is also used for therapeutic purposes. S-34 can be used for the production of the medical radioisotope Cl-34m and for S-35. Both S-33 and S-34 are used for genome research. Finally, S-36 has been used for the production of the radioisotopes S-37 and S-38. Sulfur isotopes can be obtained from Trace Sciences International.

Naturally occurring isotopes

This table shows information about naturally occuring isotopes, their atomic masses, their natural abundances, their nuclear spins, and their magnetic moments. Further data for radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes) of sulfur are listed (including any which occur naturally) below.
Isotope Atomic mass (ma/u) Natural abundance (atom %) Nuclear spin (I) Magnetic moment (μ/μN)
32S 31.97207070 (25) 94.93 (31) 0 0
33S 32.97145843 (23) 0.76 (2) 3/2 0.643821
34S 33.96786665 (22) 4.29 (28) 0 0
36S 35.96708062 (27) 0.02 (1) 0 0

Isotopic abundances of S
In the above picture, the most intense ion is set to 100% since this corresponds best to the output from a mass spectrometer. This is not to be confused with the relative percentage isotope abundances which total 100% for all the naturally occurring isotopes.

Radiosotope data

Further data for naturally occuring isotopes of sulfur are listed above. This table gives information about some radiosotopes of sulfur, their masses, their half-lives, their modes of decay, their nuclear spins, and their nuclear magnetic moments.
Isotope Mass Half-life Mode of decay Nuclear spin Nuclear magnetic moment
30S 29.984903 1.18 s EC to 30P 0
31S 30.979555 2.56 s EC to 31P 1/2
35S 34.9690322 87.2 d β- to 35Cl 3/2 1.00
37S 36.9711257 5.05 m β- to 37Cl
38S 37.97116 2.84 h β- to 38Cl 0
39S 38.97514 11.5 s β- to 39Cl
40S 39.9755 9 s β- to 40Cl

Sheffield ChemPuter isotope pattern calculator

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References

  1. Naturally occurring isotope abundances: Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances report for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1989, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1998, 70, 217. [Copyright 1998 IUPAC]
  2. For further information about radioisotopes see Jonghwa Chang's (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) Table of the Nuclides
  3. Masses, nuclear spins, and magnetic moments: I. Mills, T. Cvitas, K. Homann, N. Kallay, and K. Kuchitsu in Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, 1988. [Copyright 1988 IUPAC]

NMR Properties of sulfur

Common reference compound: (NH4)2SO4/D2O, saturated.

Table of NMR-active nucleus propeties of sulfur
  Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Isotope 3
Isotope 33S 33S
Natural abundance /% 0.76
Spin (I) 3/2
Frequency relative to 1H = 100 (MHz) 7.676000
Receptivity, DP, relative to 1H = 1.00 0.0000172
Receptivity, DC, relative to 13C = 1.00 0.101
Magnetogyric ratio, γ (107 rad T-1 s-1) 2.055685
Magnetic moment, μ (μN) 0.8311696
Nuclear quadrupole moment, Q/millibarn -67.8 47.1(9)
Line width factor, 1056l (m4) 61

References

  1. R.K. Harris in Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, D.M. Granty and R.K. Harris, (eds.), vol. 5, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1996. I am grateful to Professor Robin Harris (University of Durham, UK) who provided much of the NMR data, which are copyright 1996 IUPAC, adapted from his contribution contained within this reference.
  2. J. Mason in Multinuclear NMR, Plenum Press, New York, USA, 1987. Where given, data for certain radioactive nuclei are from this reference.
  3. P. Pyykkö, Mol. Phys., 2008, 106, 1965-1974.
  4. P. Pyykkö, Mol. Phys., 2001, 99, 1617-1629.
  5. P. Pyykkö, Z. Naturforsch., 1992, 47a, 189. I am grateful to Professor Pekka Pyykkö (University of Helsinki, Finland) who provided the nuclear quadrupole moment data in this and the following two references.
  6. D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.
  7. P. Pyykkö, personal communication, 1998, 204, 2008, 2010.
  8. The isotopic abundances are extracted from the naturally occurring isotopes section within WebElements.

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sulfur atomic number