The following uses for sulfur are gathered from a number of sources as well as from anecdotal comments. I'd be delighted to receive corrections as well as additional referenced uses (please use the feedback mechanism to add uses).
Most of the sulphur produced is used to produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4, the most important manufactured chemical in the world. Sulphuric acid has many uses, including for the synthesis of fertilisers and polyamides. It is used in batteries ("battery acid").
Sulphur is a component of black gunpowder (a mixture of potassium nitrate, KNO3, carbon, and sulhur). It is used in the vulcanisation of natural rubber, as a fungicide, and as a fumigant.
Sulphur compounds are used in the bleaching of dried fruits and for paper products.