Isotopes of lead

Lead isotopes are used for medical and scientific purposes. Pb-206 and Pb-207 can both be used to produce the medical radioisotopes Bi-205 and Bi-206. Pb-204, Pb-206 and Pb-207 are used to measure lead levels in blood. Pb-208 has been used to produce neutron-rich isotopes of W and Lu. Pb-208 has also been used to study the configuration of neutron stars. Several Lead isotopes have also been used as target in the production of super heavy elements. Lead isotopes can be obtained from Trace Sciences International.

Naturally occurring isotopes

This table shows information about naturally occuring isotopes, their atomic masses, their natural abundances, their nuclear spins, and their magnetic moments. Further data for radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes) of lead are listed (including any which occur naturally) below.
Isotope Atomic mass (ma/u) Natural abundance (atom %) Nuclear spin (I) Magnetic moment (μ/μN)
204Pb 203.973020 (5) 1.4 (1) 0
206Pb 205.974440 (4) 24.1 (1) 0
207Pb 206.975872 (4) 22.1 (1) 1/2 0.58219
208Pb 207.976627 (4) 52.4 (1) 0

Isotopic abundances of Pb
In the above picture, the most intense ion is set to 100% since this corresponds best to the output from a mass spectrometer. This is not to be confused with the relative percentage isotope abundances which total 100% for all the naturally occurring isotopes.

Radiosotope data

Further data for naturally occuring isotopes of lead are listed above. This table gives information about some radiosotopes of lead, their masses, their half-lives, their modes of decay, their nuclear spins, and their nuclear magnetic moments.
Isotope Mass Half-life Mode of decay Nuclear spin Nuclear magnetic moment
200Pb 199.97182 21.5 h EC to 200Tl 0
201Pb 200.97285 9.33 h EC to 201Tl 5/2 0.675
202Pb 201.97214 53000 y EC to 202Tl; α to 198Hg 0
203Pb 202.97338 2.1615 d EC to 203Tl 5/2 0.686
205Pb 204.97447 1.51 x 107 y EC to 205Tl 5/2 0.712
210Pb 209.98417 22.6 y β- to 210Bi; α to 206Hg 0
211Pb 210.98873 36.1 m β- to 211Bi 9/2 -1.414
212Pb 211.99187 10.64 h β- to 212Bi 0

Sheffield ChemPuter isotope pattern calculator

You can use WebElements to calculate an isotope pattern for an arbitrary chemical formula:

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References

  1. Naturally occurring isotope abundances: Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances report for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1989, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1998, 70, 217. [Copyright 1998 IUPAC]
  2. For further information about radioisotopes see Jonghwa Chang's (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) Table of the Nuclides
  3. Masses, nuclear spins, and magnetic moments: I. Mills, T. Cvitas, K. Homann, N. Kallay, and K. Kuchitsu in Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, 1988. [Copyright 1988 IUPAC]

NMR Properties of lead

Common reference compound: Pb(CH3)4.

Table of NMR-active nucleus propeties of lead
  Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Isotope 3
Isotope 207Pb 207Pb
Natural abundance /% 22.1
Spin (I) 1/2
Frequency relative to 1H = 100 (MHz) 20.920597
Receptivity, DP, relative to 1H = 1.00 0.00201
Receptivity, DC, relative to 13C = 1.00 11.5
Magnetogyric ratio, γ (107 rad T-1 s-1) 5.58046
Magnetic moment, μ (μN) 1.00906
Nuclear quadrupole moment, Q/millibarn - -269(165)
Line width factor, 1056l (m4) -

References

  1. R.K. Harris in Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, D.M. Granty and R.K. Harris, (eds.), vol. 5, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1996. I am grateful to Professor Robin Harris (University of Durham, UK) who provided much of the NMR data, which are copyright 1996 IUPAC, adapted from his contribution contained within this reference.
  2. J. Mason in Multinuclear NMR, Plenum Press, New York, USA, 1987. Where given, data for certain radioactive nuclei are from this reference.
  3. P. Pyykkö, Mol. Phys., 2008, 106, 1965-1974.
  4. P. Pyykkö, Mol. Phys., 2001, 99, 1617-1629.
  5. P. Pyykkö, Z. Naturforsch., 1992, 47a, 189. I am grateful to Professor Pekka Pyykkö (University of Helsinki, Finland) who provided the nuclear quadrupole moment data in this and the following two references.
  6. D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.
  7. P. Pyykkö, personal communication, 1998, 204, 2008, 2010.
  8. The isotopic abundances are extracted from the naturally occurring isotopes section within WebElements.

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lead atomic number