Hydrogen: hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen fluoride is known by the following synonyms:
- hydrogen fluoride
- hydrogen(I) fluoride
- hydrofluoric acid
The oxidation number of hydrogen in hydrogen fluoride is 1.
- Formula: HF
- Hill system formula: F1H1
- CAS registry number: [7664-39-3]
- Formula weight: 20.006
- Class: fluoride
- Colour: colourless
- Appearance: gas
- Melting point: -83.5°C
- Boiling point: 19.5°C
- Density: 1000 kg m-3 (liquid at 0°C)
Dry hydrogen fluoride gas may be made in the laboratory by heating anhydrous potassium hydrogen fluoride and collecting the evolved hydrogen fluoride gas.
KHF2(s) (500°C) → HF(g) + KF(s)
Hydrogen fluoride gas may be made on very large scales (20000 tonnes par year) by the reaction of calcium(II) fluoirde, CaF2, with sulphuric acid.
CaF2(s) + H2SO4(l) (200°C) → 2HF(g) + CaSO4(s)
Solid state structure
- Geometry of hydrogen: 1 coordinate: terminus
- Prototypical structure:
Isotope pattern for HF
THe chart below shows the calculated isotope pattern for the formula HF with the most intense ion set to 100%.
The data on these compounds pages are assembled and adapted from the primary literature and several other sources including the following.
- R.T. Sanderson in Chemical Periodicity, Reinhold, New York, USA, 1960.
- N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw in Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth, UK, 1997.
- F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C.A. Murillo, and M. Bochmann, in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
- A.F. Trotman-Dickenson, (ed.) in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1973.
- R.W.G. Wyckoff, in Crystal Structures, volume 1, Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, 1963.
- A.R.West in Basic solid state chemistry Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
- A.F. Wells in Structural inorganic chemistry, 4th edition, Oxford, UK, 1975.
- J.D.H. Donnay, (ed.) in Crystal data determinative tables, ACA monograph number 5, American Crystallographic Association, USA, 1963.
- D.R. Lide, (ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 77th edition, 1996.
- J.W. Mellor in A comprehensive treatise on inorganic and theoretical chemistry, volumes 1-16, Longmans, London, UK, 1922-1937.
- J.E. Macintyre (ed.) in Dictionary of inorganic compounds, volumes 1-3, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1992.
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- Binary fluorides
- Binary chlorides
- Hydrogen chloride: HCl
- Binary bromides
- Hydrogen bromide: HBr
- Binary iodides
- Hydrogen iodide: HI
- Binary hydrides
- none listed
- Binary oxides
- Water: H2O
- Binary sulfides (sulphides)
- Binary selenides
- Hydrogen selenide: H2Se
- Binary tellurides
- Hydrogen telluride: H2Te
- Binary nitrides
- Metal carbonyls
- none listed
- Metal complexes
- none listed
- Hydrogen: the essentials
- Index to hydrogen properties
- Element properties
- Crystal structure
- Physical properties
- Thermochemistry and thermodynamics
- Electron shell properties
- The free atom
- Atom and ion sizes
- Chemistry and compounds
- Reactions of H
- Properties of Hydrogen compounds