Young's modulus refers to longitudinal strain.
To convert GPa to Pa multiply by 109.
Data are largely from references 1, 2, and 3. Data for lanthanides were taken from reference 4. Some other data is in reference 5.
- A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.
- G.W.C. Kaye and T.H. Laby in Tables of physical and chemical constants, Longman, London, UK, 15th edition, 1993.
- G.V. Samsonov (Ed.) in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA, 1968.
- D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.
- H. Ellis (Ed.) in Nuffield Advanced Science Book of Data, Longman, London, UK, 1972.