โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Yttrium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡”
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Yttrium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Yttrium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Yttrium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืื™ื˜ืจื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Ittrio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚คใƒƒใƒˆใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Ítrio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ˜ั‚ั‚ั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Ytrio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Yttrium

Yttrium: the essentials

Yttrium atoms have 39 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.9.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral yttrium is [Kr].4d1.5s2 and the term symbol of yttrium is 2D3/2.

Yttrium: description  

Yttrium has a silvery-metallic lustre. Yttrium turnings ignite in air. Yttrium is found in most rare-earth minerals. Moon rocks contain yttrium and yttrium is used as a "phosphor" to produce the red colour in television screens.

yttrium
This sample is from The Elements Collection, an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.

Yttrium: physical properties

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Yttrium: heat properties

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Yttrium: electronegativities

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Yttrium: orbital properties

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Yttrium: abundances

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Yttrium: crystal structure

Y crystal structure
The solid state structure of yttrium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Yttrium: biological data

Yttrium has no biological role.

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Yttrium: uses

Uses...

Yttrium: reactions

Reactions of yttrium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Yttrium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of yttrium where known.

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Yttrium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of yttrium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Yttrium: history

Yttrium was discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794 at Finland. Origin of name: named after the village of "Ytterby" near Vaxholm in Sweden.

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Yttrium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of yttrium
Isotope abundances of yttrium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

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Yttrium: isolation

Isolation: yttrium metal is available commercially so it is not normally necesary to make it in the laboratory. Yttrium is found in lathanoid minerals and the extraction of the yttrium and the lanthanoid metals from the ores is highly complex. Initially, the metals are extractedas salts from the ores by extraction with sulphuric acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Modern purification techniques for these lanthanoid salt mixtures involve selective complexation techniques, solvent extractions, and ion exchange chromatography.

Pure yttrium is available through the reduction of YF3 with calcium metal.

2YF3 + 3Ca → 2Y + 3CaF2