Van der Waals radius: period 4d
van der Waals radii are established from contact distances between non-bonding atoms in touching molecules or atoms.
Van der Waals radii may be established from neighbour-neighbour interactions in crystals and from gas critical volumes. Values from tables in different sources differ. Those quoted in WebElements are taken from reference 1 while other marginally different compilations are located in references 2-5. Users of the Chemical Database Service (CDS) at Daresbury who make use of the Cambridge Structural Database System will also find these values reproduced in the "Getting Started" user manual.
- A. Bondi, J. Phys. Chem., 1964, 68, 441.
- L. Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Cornell University Press, USA, 1945.
- J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.W.W. Porterfield in Inorganic chemistry, a unified approach, Addison Wesley Publishing Co., Reading Massachusetts, USA, 1984.
- A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.