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Ionization energy: 4th

The 4th ionization energy of the element M is a measure of the energy required to remove one electron from one mole of the gaseous ion M3+

image showing Ionization energy: 4th: period 6f periodicity for the 6f chemical elements

Units

kJ mol-1

Notes

None

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Literature sources

  1. J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.
  2. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.
  3. J.A. Dean (ed) in Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 14th edition, 1992.