Titanium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species TiTi is 141.4 ±21 kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic TiX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (TiO, TiF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving titanium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

TiH             TiHe
204.6 ±8.8              

Period 2

TiLi TiBe TiB TiC TiN TiO TiF TiNe
    276 ±63 423 ±29 476.1 ±33.1 672.4 ±9.2 569 ±33  

Period 3

TiNa TiMg TiAl TiSi TiP TiS TiCl TiAr
          418 ±3 494  

Period 4

TiK TiCa TiGa TiGe TiAs TiSe TiBr TiKr
          381 ±42 439  

Period 5

TiRb TiSr TiIn TiSn TiSb TiTe TiI TiXe
          289 ±17 310 ±42  

Period 6

TiCs TiBa TiTl TiPb TiBi TiPo TiAt TiRn

Period 7

TiFr TiRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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titanium atomic number