Thulium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species TmTm is (no data) kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic TmX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (TmO, TmF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving thulium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

TmH             TmHe

Period 2

TmLi TmBe TmB TmC TmN TmO TmF TmNe
69.0 ±3.3         502 ±13 510  

Period 3

TmNa TmMg TmAl TmSi TmP TmS TmCl TmAr
          368 ±42    

Period 4

TmK TmCa TmGa TmGe TmAs TmSe TmBr TmKr
          276 ±42    

Period 5

TmRb TmSr TmIn TmSn TmSb TmTe TmI TmXe
          276 ±42    

Period 6

TmCs TmBa TmTl TmPb TmBi TmPo TmAt TmRn

Period 7

TmFr TmRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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thulium atomic number