Thorium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species ThTh is <= 289 kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic ThX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (ThO, ThF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving thorium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

ThH             ThHe

Period 2

ThLi ThBe ThB ThC ThN ThO ThF ThNe
    297 453 ±17 577.4 ±33.1 878.6 ±12.1 652  

Period 3

ThNa ThMg ThAl ThSi ThP ThS ThCl ThAr
        550.2 ±42   489  

Period 4

ThK ThCa ThGa ThGe ThAs ThSe ThBr ThKr

Period 5

ThRb ThSr ThIn ThSn ThSb ThTe ThI ThXe

Period 6

ThCs ThBa ThTl ThPb ThBi ThPo ThAt ThRn

Period 7

ThFr ThRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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thorium atomic number