Periodic Table

Mendeleev's periodic table

The Mendeleev Periodic Table

This table shows the form of Mendeleev's Periodic Table of the chemical elements as published in 1872. The heading "Reihen" means "Row" and the heading "Gruppe" means "Group". The symbols R2O and RH4, etc., are written in the style of the time which uses superscripts to denote the number of atoms in molecules rather than the current style which uses subscripts. The gaps marked with hyphens ("-") represent chemical elements deduced by Mendeleev as existing but unknown in 1872. He was able to predict with considerable success the properties of some of the missing chemical elements such as germanium.

Reihen Gruppe I.
-
R2O
Gruppe II.
-
RO
Gruppe III.
-
R2O3
Gruppe IV.
RH4
RO2
Gruppe V.
RH3
R2O5
Gruppe VI.
RH2
RO3
Gruppe VII.
RH
R2O7
Gruppe VIII.
-
RO4
1 H=1
2 Li=7 Be=9,4 B=11 C=12 N=14 O=16 F=19
3 Na=23 Mg=24 Al=27,3 Si=28 P=31 S=32 Cl=35,5
4 K=39 Ca=40 -=44 Ti=48 V=51 Cr=52 Mn=55 Fe=56, Ce=59,
Ni=59, Cu=63.
5 (Cu=63) Zn=65 -=68 -=72 As=75 Se=78 Br=80
6 Rb=85 Sr=87 ?Yt=88 Zr=90 Nb=94 Mo=96 -=100 Ru=104, Rh=104,
Pd=106, Ag=108.
7 (Ag=108) Cd=112 In=113 Sn=118 Sb=122 Te=125 J=127
8 Cs=133 Ba=137 ?Di=138 ?Ce=140 - - - - - - -
9 (-) - - - - - -
10 - - ?Er=178 ?La=180 Ta=182 W=184 - Os=195, Ir=197,
Pt=198, Au=199
11 (Au=199) Hg=200 Tl=204 Pb=207 Bi=208 - -
12 - - - Th=231 - U=240 - - - - -

Periodic Table groups

In the standard form of the periodic table the s-block, p-block, and d-block elements are organised into 18 vertical columns called groups. These are labelled from 1 to 18 under current IUPAC numenclature.

Earlier labelling schemes (Trivial Group names)

For historical reasons some Groups have special names. Terms such as the "alkali metals" are in very common use whereas the term "pnictogens" is very much less common. Some of these special names are listed in the Table.

Special group names
Group Name
1 Alkali metals
2 Alakine earth metals
8/9/10 Platinum Group Metals
11 Coinage Metals
15 Pnictogens
16 Chalcogens
17 Halogens
18 Noble Gases, Inert Gases

In addition the elements 57-71 (lanthanum-lutetium) are referred to as the lanthanoids (lanthanides) and the elements 89-103 (actinium-lawrencium) are referred to as the actinoids (actinides). The elements Sc, Y, and the lanthanoids are sometimes referred to as the rare earths.

The s-, p-, and d-blocks contain a total of 18 groups. The latest recommendations from IUPAC (the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) require that these be labelled 1 - 18 from left to right. This is a good recommendation in the sense that it is at least unambiguous.

Confusion in labelling schemes

There are two other ways of labelling the groups, and both use labels 1-8 (often in Roman numeral format) with further A and B labels. Unfortunately there is enormous confusion here. The two schemes are shown in the table below, underneath the new IUPAC scheme in the first row. It is easy to see the origins of the confusion!

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8 1B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 0
1A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 0

One of these systems is more common in America and the other in Europe but there is really only room for one convention on a small planet, which is where the IUPAC systems scores. These days most new books are printed with the IUPAC labels, but often one of the older conventions is given as well.

The point about confusion is important. If you really must use one of the two older formats, then you must define which you are using. Otherwise it's not clear whether Group 3B refers to the boron group or to the scandium group.

Systematic element names

Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry

Recommendations for the Naming of Elements of Atomic Numbers Greater than 100

J. Chatt, Pure Appl. Chem., 1979, 51, 381-384.
The content of this article is Copyright IUPAC.

Recommendations for the Naming of Elements of Atomic Numbers Greater than 100

Elements of atomic numbers of 101 to 103 have trivial names and corresponding two letter symbols approved by IUPAC. The status of these names and symbols is in no way affected by the recommendation of systematic names for elements of atomic numbers greater than 100.

Elements of atomic numbers greater than 103 are often referred to in the scientific literature but receive names only after they have been 'discovered'. Names are needed for indexing and other purposes and the Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry was asked to make recommendations concerning names and symbols of the heavy 'unknown' elements. The Commission decided that these elements would be best named systematically and that names should accord with the following principles:

  1. The names should be short and obviously related to the atomic numbers of the elements.
  2. The names should end in 'ium' whether the element was expected to be a metal or otherwise.
  3. The symbols for the systematically named elements should consist of three letters.
  4. The symbols should be derived directly from the atomic numbers and be visually related to the names as far as possible.

The reasons for principles (1), (2), and (4) are obvious but those for (3) are not so immediately apparent. The Commission recommends the use of three-letter symbols because any systematically derived set of two-letter symbols will tend to duplicate some of the two-letter symbols of elements of atomic numbers less than 104. Any ad hoc method of removing such duplication will destroy the systematic derivation of the symbol.

The existence of a systematic nomenclature for the unknown elements does not deny the right of 'discoverers' of new elements to suggest other names to the Commission after their discovery has been established beyond all doubt in the general scientific community. For elements 101-103 the systematic names are minor alternatives to the trivial names already approved by IUPAC. The systematic names and symbols for elements of atomic numbers greater than 103 are the only approved names and symbols for those elements until the approval of trivial names by IUPAC.

Nomenclature of Elements of Atomic Numbers greater than 100

  1. The name is derived directly from the atomic number of the element using the following numerical roots:
    • 0 = nil
    • 1 = un
    • 2 = bi
    • 3 = tri
    • 4 = quad
    • 5 = pent
    • 6 = hex
    • 7 = sept
    • 8 = oct
    • 9 = enn
  2. The roots are put together in the order of the digits which make up the atomic number and terminated by 'ium' to spell out the name. The final 'n' of 'enn' is elided when it occurs before 'nil', and the final 'i' of 'bi' and of 'tri' when it occurs before 'ium'.
  3. The symbol of the element is composed of the initial letters of the numerical roots which make up the name.
  4. The root 'un' is pronounced with a long 'u', to rhyme with 'moon'. In the element names each root is to be pronounced separately.

Examples of systematic names

[The original text is altered below to show current or provisional names]

Atomic number Name Symbol
101 Mendelevium (Unnilunium) Md (Unu)
102 Nobelium (Unnilbium) No (Unb)
103 Lawrencium (Unniltrium) Lr (Unt)
104 Rutherfordium (Unnilquadium) Rf (Unq)
105 Dubnium (Unnilpentium) Db (Unp)
106 Seaborgium (Unnilhexium) Sg (Unh)
107 Bohrium (Unnilseptium) Bh (Uns)
108 Hassium (Unniloctium) Hs (Uno)
109 Meitnerium (Unnilennium) Mt (Une)
110 Darmstadtium (Ununnilium) Ds (Uun)
111 Roentgenium (Unununium) Rg (Uuu)
112 Copernicium (Ununbium) Cp (Uub)
113 Ununtrium Uut
114 Ununquadium Uuq
115 Ununpentium Uup
116 Ununhexium Uuh
117 Ununseptium Uus
118 Ununoctium Uuo
119 Ununennium Uue
120 Unbinilium Ubn
121 Unbiunium Ubu
130 Untrinilium Utn
140 Unquadnilium Uqn
150 Unpentnilium Upn
160 Unhexnilium Uhn
170 Unseptnilium Usn
180 Unoctnilium Uon
190 Unennilium Uen
200 Binilnilium Bnn
201 Binilunium Bnu
202 Binilbium Bnb
300 Trinilnilium Tnn
400 Quadnilnilium Qnn
500 Pentnilnilium Pnn
900 Ennilnilium Enn

List of elements sorted by symbol

Here is a list of the elements sorted by element symbol.
Element nameElement symbolAtomic number
ActiniumAc89
SilverAg47
Aluminium (aluminum)Al13
AmericiumAm95
ArgonAr18
ArsenicAs33
AstatineAt85
GoldAu79
BoronB5
BariumBa56
BerylliumBe4
BohriumBh107
BismuthBi83
BerkeliumBk97
BromineBr35
CarbonC6
CalciumCa20
CadmiumCd48
CeriumCe58
CaliforniumCf98
ChlorineCl17
CuriumCm96
CobaltCo27
CoperniciumCp112
ChromiumCr24
Caesium (Cesium)Cs55
CopperCu29
DubniumDb105
DarmstadtiumDs110
DysprosiumDy66
ErbiumEr68
EinsteiniumEs99
EuropiumEu63
FluorineF9
IronFe26
FermiumFm100
FranciumFr87
GalliumGa31
GadoliniumGd64
GermaniumGe32
HydrogenH1
HeliumHe2
HafniumHf72
MercuryHg80
HolmiumHo67
HassiumHs108
IodineI53
IndiumIn49
IridiumIr77
PotassiumK19
KryptonKr36
LanthanumLa57
LithiumLi3
LawrenciumLr103
LutetiumLu71
MendeleviumMd101
MagnesiumMg12
ManganeseMn25
MolybdenumMo42
MeitneriumMt109
NitrogenN7
SodiumNa11
NiobiumNb41
NeodymiumNd60
NeonNe10
NickelNi28
NobeliumNo102
NeptuniumNp93
OxygenO8
OsmiumOs76
PhosphorusP15
ProtactiniumPa91
LeadPb82
PalladiumPd46
PromethiumPm61
PoloniumPo84
PraseodymiumPr59
PlatinumPt78
PlutoniumPu94
RadiumRa88
RubidiumRb37
RheniumRe75
RutherfordiumRf104
RoentgeniumRg111
RhodiumRh45
RadonRn86
RutheniumRu44
Sulfur (Sulphur)S16
AntimonySb51
ScandiumSc21
SeleniumSe34
SeaborgiumSg106
SiliconSi14
SamariumSm62
TinSn50
StrontiumSr38
TantalumTa73
TerbiumTb65
TechnetiumTc43
TelluriumTe52
ThoriumTh90
TitaniumTi22
ThalliumTl81
ThuliumTm69
UraniumU92
UnunhexiumUuh116
UnunoctiumUuo118
UnunpentiumUup115
UnunquadiumUuq114
UnunseptiumUus117
UnuntriumUut113
VanadiumV23
TungstenW74
XenonXe54
YttriumY39
YtterbiumYb70
ZincZn30
ZirconiumZr40

List of elements sorted by name

Here is a list of the elements sorted by alphabetically by element name.

Element name Element symbol Atomic number
Actinium Ac 89
Aluminium (aluminum) Al 13
Americium Am 95
Antimony Sb 51
Argon Ar 18
Arsenic As 33
Astatine At 85
Barium Ba 56
Berkelium Bk 97
Beryllium Be 4
Bismuth Bi 83
Bohrium Bh 107
Boron B 5
Bromine Br 35
Cadmium Cd 48
Caesium (Cesium) Cs 55
Calcium Ca 20
Californium Cf 98
Carbon C 6
Cerium Ce 58
Chlorine Cl 17
Chromium Cr 24
Cobalt Co 27
Copernicium Cp 112
Copper Cu 29
Curium Cm 96
Darmstadtium Ds 110
Dubnium Db 105
Dysprosium Dy 66
Einsteinium Es 99
Erbium Er 68
Europium Eu 63
Fermium Fm 100
Fluorine F 9
Francium Fr 87
Gadolinium Gd 64
Gallium Ga 31
Germanium Ge 32
Gold Au 79
Hafnium Hf 72
Hassium Hs 108
Helium He 2
Holmium Ho 67
Hydrogen H 1
Indium In 49
Iodine I 53
Iridium Ir 77
Iron Fe 26
Krypton Kr 36
Lanthanum La 57
Lawrencium Lr 103
Lead Pb 82
Lithium Li 3
Lutetium Lu 71
Magnesium Mg 12
Manganese Mn 25
Meitnerium Mt 109
Mendelevium Md 101
Mercury Hg 80
Molybdenum Mo 42
Neodymium Nd 60
Neon Ne 10
Neptunium Np 93
Nickel Ni 28
Niobium Nb 41
Nitrogen N 7
Nobelium No 102
Osmium Os 76
Oxygen O 8
Palladium Pd 46
Phosphorus P 15
Platinum Pt 78
Plutonium Pu 94
Polonium Po 84
Potassium K 19
Praseodymium Pr 59
Promethium Pm 61
Protactinium Pa 91
Radium Ra 88
Radon Rn 86
Rhenium Re 75
Rhodium Rh 45
Roentgenium Rg 111
Rubidium Rb 37
Ruthenium Ru 44
Rutherfordium Rf 104
Samarium Sm 62
Scandium Sc 21
Seaborgium Sg 106
Selenium Se 34
Silicon Si 14
Silver Ag 47
Sodium Na 11
Strontium Sr 38
Sulfur (Sulphur) S 16
Tantalum Ta 73
Technetium Tc 43
Tellurium Te 52
Terbium Tb 65
Thallium Tl 81
Thorium Th 90
Thulium Tm 69
Tin Sn 50
Titanium Ti 22
Tungsten W 74
Ununhexium Uuh 116
Ununoctium Uuo 118
Ununpentium Uup 115
Ununquadium Uuq 114
Ununseptium Uus 117
Ununtrium Uut 113
Uranium U 92
Vanadium V 23
Xenon Xe 54
Ytterbium Yb 70
Yttrium Y 39
Zinc Zn 30
Zirconium Zr 40

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Printable Periodic Table

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The 5-figure version is called webelements_table_5sf_2012-06-07.pdf. This version is appropriate for most uses, in particular for school use and many university requirements. It lists the atomic weights to 5 significant figures, all that is needed for many purposes.

The full version is called webelements_table_full_2012-06-07.pdf. This version is appropriate if you want the atomic weights to have the maximum number of figures. The estimated errors as given by IUPAC are also included. This will suit the professional in particular but is also suitable in many cases for school and university requirements.

These files were updated 07 June 2012 to include the latest IUPAC values.

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