Finland

Acknowledgements

I am indebted to a number of important contibutors, some of whom are detailed below.

Nearing Zero

WebElements™ has added Nearing Zero cartoons included by kind permission of Nick Kim, an example of a rare breed, a chemist who can produce excellent cartoons.

More contributors

I am grateful to the following experts:
  1. Gwyn Williams (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data
  2. Dr Don Jenkins (University of Warwick, UK) who provided the lattice energy data
  3. Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data
  4. Professor Robin Harris (University of Durham, UK) who provided much of the NMR data, which are copyright 1996 IUPAC
  5. Professor Pekka Pyykkö (University of Helsinki, Finland) who provided the nuclear quadrupole moment data
  6. Barry Evans and Graham McElearney (University of Sheffield, UK) who provided some of the photographs of my fireworks. I am also pleased to acknowledge Steve Collier (Sheffield University Television) who filmed and digitized the video clips of my fireworks
  7. Malcolm Rathbone of Thessco, Sheffield, UK, who allowed me to photograph several elements on their site and for several pictures. And for putting on great parties over the years!
  8. Dr Andrew Goodfellow of Advent Research Materials Ltd, Oxford, UK, who allowed me to photograph samples of several elements so that you can see what they look like. Advent Research Materials are suppliers of high quality sample of metals (alloys, foils, sheets, wires, mesh, rods, tubes) for research and development and for industry. Further details on their web site

Other acknowledgements

During the preparation of an earlier version of this web site (prior to July 1997), the author had the benefit of the use of data and information compiled by Dr John Emsley for the 3rd edition of his book "The Elements". The author is also grateful to Professor Eric Scerri (University of California, Los Angeles, USA) for many perceptive comments over the years. The author is indebted to thousands of people, too many to list here, who have sent in corrections for WebElements™ and comments about WebElements™ since its launch in 1993. I'm still working my way through the correspondence (slowly)!

Element 112 (Uub) to become Copernicium, Cp

CoperniciumCoperniciumIn honour of scientist and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the discovering team around Professor Sigurd Hofmann suggested the name copernicium with the element symbol Cp for the new element 112, discovered at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Center for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt. It was Copernicus who discovered that the Earth orbits the Sun, thus paving the way for our modern view of the world. Thirteen years ago, element 112 was discovered by an international team of scientists at the GSI accelerator facility. A few weeks ago, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC, officially confirmed their discovery. In around six months, IUPAC will officially endorse the new element's name. This period is set to allow the scientific community to discuss the suggested name copernicium before the IUPAC naming.

"After IUPAC officially recognized our discovery, we – that is all scientists involved in the discovery – agreed on proposing the name copernicium for the new element 112. We would like to honor an outstanding scientist, who changed our view of the world", says Sigurd Hofmann, head of the discovering team.

Copernicus was born 1473 in Torun; he died 1543 in Frombork, Poland. Working in the field of astronomy, he realized that the planets circle the Sun. His discovery refuted the then accepted belief that the Earth was the center of the universe. His finding was pivotal for the discovery of the gravitational force, which is responsible for the motion of the planets. It also led to the conclusion that the stars are incredibly far away and the universe inconceivably large, as the size and position of the stars does not change even though the Earth is moving. Furthermore, the new world view inspired by Copernicus had an impact on the human self-concept in theology and philosophy: humankind could no longer be seen as the center of the world.

With its planets revolving around the Sun on different orbits, the solar system is also a model for other physical systems. The structure of an atom is like a microcosm: its electrons orbit the atomic nucleus like the planets orbit the Sun. Exactly 112 electrons circle the atomic nucleus in an atom of the new element "copernicium".

Element 112 is the heaviest element in the periodic table, 277 times heavier than hydrogen. It is produced by a nuclear fusion, when bombarding zinc ions onto a lead target. As the element already decays after a split second, its existence can only be proved with the help of extremely fast and sensitive analysis methods. Twenty-one scientists from Germany, Finland, Russia and Slovakia have been involved in the experiments that led to the discovery of element 112.

Since 1981, GSI accelerator experiments have yielded the discovery of six chemical elements, which carry the atomic numbers 107 to 112. The discovering teams at GSI already named five of them: element 107 is called bohrium, element 108 hassium, element 109 meitnerium, element 110 darmstadtium, and element 111 is named roentgenium.

Element 112 (copernicium, ununbium)

The discoverors at GSIThe discoverors at GSI
Darmstadt, June 10, 2009

The new element 112 discovered by GSI has been officially recognized and will be named by the Darmstadt group in due course. Their suggestion should be made public over this summer.

The element 112, discovered at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Centre for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt, has been officially recognized as a new element by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). IUPAC confirmed the recognition of element 112 in an official letter to the head of the discovering team, Professor Sigurd Hofmann. The letter furthermore asks the discoverers to propose a name for the new element. Their suggestion will be submitted within the next weeks. In about 6 months, after the proposed name has been thoroughly assessed by IUPAC, the element will receive its official name. The new element is approximately 277 times heavier than hydrogen, making it the heaviest element in the periodic table.

“We are delighted that now the sixth element – and thus all of the elements discovered at GSI during the past 30 years – has been officially recognized. During the next few weeks, the scientists of the discovering team will deliberate on a name for the new element”, says Sigurd Hofmann. 21 scientists from Germany, Finland, Russia and Slovakia were involved in the experiments around the discovery of the new element 112.

Since 1981, GSI accelerator experiments have yielded the discovery of six chemical elements, which carry the atomic numbers 107 to 112. GSI has already named their officially recognized elements 107 to 111: element 107 is called Bohrium, element 108 Hassium, element 109 Meitnerium, element 110 Darmstadtium, and element 111 is named Roentgenium.

Christmas Chemistry

Well it's Christmas so here are a few Christmasy chemistry links.

WebElements: the periodic table on the WWW [http://www.webelements.com/]

Copyright 1993-2011 Mark Winter [The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. All rights reserved.