Search: Spectroscopy, Bismuth
The results of cross-section measurements for the reactions 209Bi(12C,X)Au, E=4.8 and 25.2 GeV and 209Bi(20Ne,X)Au, E=8.0 GeV are reported. The observed yields of the gold isotopes show a similar dependence on mass number for each reaction, differing slightly in the position of the centroid of the distribution. As the projectile energy increases, the inferred excitation energy of the primary residues remains the same or decreases slightly. This observation is in agreement with the predictions of the intranuclear cascade model of relativistic heavy ion collisions.
NUCLEAR REACTIONS 209Bi(12C,X)Au, E=4.8,25.2 GeV; 209Bi(20Ne,X)Au, E=8.0 GeV; measured Au isotopic distributions, relativistic heavy ions, target fragmentation, Ge(Li) spectroscopy.Energy dependence of 209-Bi fragmentation in relativistic nuclear collisions, , Physical Review C, 3/1981, Volume 23, Issue 3, p.1044 - 1046, (1981)
"The highlands of Venus are covered by a heavy metal 'frost', say planetary scientists from Washington University.
Because it is hot enough to melt lead at the surface, metals vaporise and condense at cooler, higher elevations.
This may explain why radar observations made by orbiting spacecraft show that the highlands are highly reflective.
Detailed calculations, to be published in the journal Icarus, suggest that lead and bismuth are to blame for giving Venus its bright, metallic skin."