Hydrogen

Might future fuel cells be nickel based?

There seems to be a possibility that nickel compounds might help in the electrolysis of water, the reaction at the centre of hydrogen fuel cells. Researchers at the Joseph Fourier University in Grenoble, and at the French Atomic Energy Commission in Gif-sur-Yvette and attached a nickel compound that mimics hydrogenase enzymes (catalysts) and attached it to the surface of carbon nanotubes. This maximises the catalyst's surface area. The resulting material was tested using a proton-exchange membrane and produced hydrogen from a sulphuric acid solution. The result is only 1% as efficient than commercial platinum catalysts but is stable under typical fuel cell conditions, justifying further study.1

From Hydrogenases to Noble Metal-Free Catalytic Nanomaterials for H2 Production and Uptake

Abstract: Interconversion of water and hydrogen in unitized regenerative fuel cells is a promising energy storage framework for smoothing out the temporal fluctuations of solar and wind power. However, replacement of presently available platinum catalysts by lower-cost and more abundant materials is a requisite for this technology to become economically viable. Here, we show that the covalent attachment of a nickel bisdiphosphine–based mimic of the active site of hydrogenase enzymes onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes results in a high–surface area cathode material with high catalytic activity under the strongly acidic conditions required in proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen evolves from aqueous sulfuric acid solution with very low overvoltages (20 millivolts), and the catalyst exhibits exceptional stability (more than 100,000 turnovers). The same catalyst is also very efficient for hydrogen oxidation in this environment, exhibiting current densities similar to those observed for hydrogenase-based materials.

From Hydrogenases to Noble Metal-Free Catalytic Nanomaterials for H2 Production and Uptake, Le Goff, A., Artero V., Jousselme B., Tran P. D., Guillet N., Metaye R., Fihri A., Palacin S., and Fontecave M. , Science, 12/2009, Volume 326, Issue 5958, p.1384 - 1387, (2009)

A room-temperature titania-nanotube hydrogen sensor able to self-clean photoactively from environmental contamination

Abstract: described is a room-temperature hydrogen sensor comprised of a TiO2-nanotube array able to recover substantially from sensor poisoning through ultraviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation of the contaminating agent; in this case, various grades of motor oil. The TiO2 nanotubes comprising the sensor are a mixture of both anatase and rutile phases, having nominal dimensions of 22-nm inner diameter, 13.5-nm wall thickness, and 400-nm length, coated with a 10-nm-thick noncontinuous palladium layer. At 24°C, in response to 1000 ppm of hydrogen, the sensors show a fully reversible change in electrical resistance of approximately 175,000%. Cyclic voltammograms using a 1 N KOH electrolyte under 170 mW/cm2 UV illumination show, for both a clean and an oil-contaminated sensor, anodic current densities of approximately 28 mA/cm2 at 2.5 V. The open circuit oxidation potential shows a shift from 0.5 V to –0.97 V upon UV illumination.

A room-temperature titania-nanotube hydrogen sensor able to self-clean photoactively from environmental contamination, Mor, Gopal K., Carvalho Maria A., Varghese Ooman K., Pishko Michael V., and Grimes Craig A. , Journal of Materials Research, 02/2004, Volume 19, Issue 2, p.628?634, (2004)

The Group 1 elements

The Group 1 elements other than hydrogen are called the alkali metals. The Group 1 elements are:

The Group 1 metals are all highly reactive silvery metals that are so reactive to air and moisture that they must be stored under an inert atmosphere or oil. They are all soft and can be cut easily with a knife.

Hydrogen is usually placed at the top of the Group but is not a Group 1 metal.

The electronic configuration of the elements all consist of a lone s-electron outside an inner core of electron corresponding to the previous inert gas.

List of elements by atomic number

Here is a list of the elements sorted by atomic number.

Janet periodic table

The Janet periodic table

The Janet periodic table is an excellent alternative periodic table and organises elements according to orbital filling. Therefore, hydrogen is above lithium on the grounds they are both ns1, and helium above beryllium on the grounds they are both ns2. Current Group numbers are displayed to help orientation with the standard table.

Element nameElement symbolAtomic number
HydrogenH1
HeliumHe2
LithiumLi3
The JANET periodic table.
Group   3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 2
Period
1 1
H
2
He
1 3
Li
4
Be
2 5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
11
Na
12
Mg
3 13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
19
K
20
Ca
4 21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
37
Rb
38
Sr
5 39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
55
Cs
56
Ba
6 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
87
Fr
88
Ra
7 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cp
113
Uut
114
Uuq
115
Uup
116
Uuh
117
Uus
118
Uuo
119
Uue
120
Ubn

List of elements sorted by symbol

Here is a list of the elements sorted by element symbol.
Element nameElement symbolAtomic number
ActiniumAc89
SilverAg47
Aluminium (aluminum)Al13
AmericiumAm95
ArgonAr18
ArsenicAs33
AstatineAt85
GoldAu79
BoronB5
BariumBa56
BerylliumBe4
BohriumBh107
BismuthBi83
BerkeliumBk97
BromineBr35
CarbonC6
CalciumCa20
CadmiumCd48
CeriumCe58
CaliforniumCf98
ChlorineCl17
CuriumCm96
CobaltCo27
CoperniciumCp112
ChromiumCr24
Caesium (Cesium)Cs55
CopperCu29
DubniumDb105
DarmstadtiumDs110
DysprosiumDy66
ErbiumEr68
EinsteiniumEs99
EuropiumEu63
FluorineF9
IronFe26
FermiumFm100
FranciumFr87
GalliumGa31
GadoliniumGd64
GermaniumGe32
HydrogenH1
HeliumHe2
HafniumHf72
MercuryHg80
HolmiumHo67
HassiumHs108
IodineI53
IndiumIn49
IridiumIr77
PotassiumK19
KryptonKr36
LanthanumLa57
LithiumLi3
LawrenciumLr103
LutetiumLu71
MendeleviumMd101
MagnesiumMg12
ManganeseMn25
MolybdenumMo42
MeitneriumMt109
NitrogenN7
SodiumNa11
NiobiumNb41
NeodymiumNd60
NeonNe10
NickelNi28
NobeliumNo102
NeptuniumNp93
OxygenO8
OsmiumOs76
PhosphorusP15
ProtactiniumPa91
LeadPb82
PalladiumPd46
PromethiumPm61
PoloniumPo84
PraseodymiumPr59
PlatinumPt78
PlutoniumPu94
RadiumRa88
RubidiumRb37
RheniumRe75
RutherfordiumRf104
RoentgeniumRg111
RhodiumRh45
RadonRn86
RutheniumRu44
Sulfur (Sulphur)S16
AntimonySb51
ScandiumSc21
SeleniumSe34
SeaborgiumSg106
SiliconSi14
SamariumSm62
TinSn50
StrontiumSr38
TantalumTa73
TerbiumTb65
TechnetiumTc43
TelluriumTe52
ThoriumTh90
TitaniumTi22
ThalliumTl81
ThuliumTm69
UraniumU92
UnunhexiumUuh116
UnunoctiumUuo118
UnunpentiumUup115
UnunquadiumUuq114
UnunseptiumUus117
UnuntriumUut113
VanadiumV23
TungstenW74
XenonXe54
YttriumY39
YtterbiumYb70
ZincZn30
ZirconiumZr40

List of elements sorted by name

Here is a list of the elements sorted by alphabetically by element name.

Element name Element symbol Atomic number
Actinium Ac 89
Aluminium (aluminum) Al 13
Americium Am 95
Antimony Sb 51
Argon Ar 18
Arsenic As 33
Astatine At 85
Barium Ba 56
Berkelium Bk 97
Beryllium Be 4
Bismuth Bi 83
Bohrium Bh 107
Boron B 5
Bromine Br 35
Cadmium Cd 48
Caesium (Cesium) Cs 55
Calcium Ca 20
Californium Cf 98
Carbon C 6
Cerium Ce 58
Chlorine Cl 17
Chromium Cr 24
Cobalt Co 27
Copernicium Cp 112
Copper Cu 29
Curium Cm 96
Darmstadtium Ds 110
Dubnium Db 105
Dysprosium Dy 66
Einsteinium Es 99
Erbium Er 68
Europium Eu 63
Fermium Fm 100
Fluorine F 9
Francium Fr 87
Gadolinium Gd 64
Gallium Ga 31
Germanium Ge 32
Gold Au 79
Hafnium Hf 72
Hassium Hs 108
Helium He 2
Holmium Ho 67
Hydrogen H 1
Indium In 49
Iodine I 53
Iridium Ir 77
Iron Fe 26
Krypton Kr 36
Lanthanum La 57
Lawrencium Lr 103
Lead Pb 82
Lithium Li 3
Lutetium Lu 71
Magnesium Mg 12
Manganese Mn 25
Meitnerium Mt 109
Mendelevium Md 101
Mercury Hg 80
Molybdenum Mo 42
Neodymium Nd 60
Neon Ne 10
Neptunium Np 93
Nickel Ni 28
Niobium Nb 41
Nitrogen N 7
Nobelium No 102
Osmium Os 76
Oxygen O 8
Palladium Pd 46
Phosphorus P 15
Platinum Pt 78
Plutonium Pu 94
Polonium Po 84
Potassium K 19
Praseodymium Pr 59
Promethium Pm 61
Protactinium Pa 91
Radium Ra 88
Radon Rn 86
Rhenium Re 75
Rhodium Rh 45
Roentgenium Rg 111
Rubidium Rb 37
Ruthenium Ru 44
Rutherfordium Rf 104
Samarium Sm 62
Scandium Sc 21
Seaborgium Sg 106
Selenium Se 34
Silicon Si 14
Silver Ag 47
Sodium Na 11
Strontium Sr 38
Sulfur (Sulphur) S 16
Tantalum Ta 73
Technetium Tc 43
Tellurium Te 52
Terbium Tb 65
Thallium Tl 81
Thorium Th 90
Thulium Tm 69
Tin Sn 50
Titanium Ti 22
Tungsten W 74
Ununhexium Uuh 116
Ununoctium Uuo 118
Ununpentium Uup 115
Ununquadium Uuq 114
Ununseptium Uus 117
Ununtrium Uut 113
Uranium U 92
Vanadium V 23
Xenon Xe 54
Ytterbium Yb 70
Yttrium Y 39
Zinc Zn 30
Zirconium Zr 40

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If you are interested in sponsoring an element, or just adding to WebElements content, please contact WebElements in the first instance.
Table 1. Table of element "popularities" relative to hydrogen = 100
ElementPopularityElementPopularityElementPopularity
actiniumholmiumrhodium
aluminium hydrogen rubidium
americium indium ruthenium
antimony iodine rutherfordium
argon iridium samarium
arsenic iron scandium
astatine krypton seaborgium
barium lanthanum selenium
berkelium lawrencium silicon
beryllium lead silver
bismuth lithium sodium
bohrium lutetium strontium
boron magnesium sulphur
bromine manganese tantalum
cadmium meitnerium technetium
caesium mendelevium tellurium
calcium mercury terbium
californium molybdenum thallium
carbon neodymium thorium
cerium neon thulium
chlorine neptunium tin
chromium nickel titanium
cobalt niobium tungsten
copper nitrogen ununbium
curium nobelium ununhexium
dubnium osmium ununnilium
dysprosium oxygen ununoctium
einsteinium palladium ununpentium
erbium phosphorus ununquadium
europium platinum ununseptium
fermium plutonium ununtrium
fluorine polonium roentgenium
francium potassium uranium
gadolinium praseodymium vanadium
gallium promethium xenon
germanium protactinium ytterbium
gold radium yttrium
hafnium radon zinc
hassium rhenium zirconium
helium    

Element 112 (Uub) to become Copernicium, Cp

CoperniciumCoperniciumIn honour of scientist and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the discovering team around Professor Sigurd Hofmann suggested the name copernicium with the element symbol Cp for the new element 112, discovered at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Center for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt. It was Copernicus who discovered that the Earth orbits the Sun, thus paving the way for our modern view of the world. Thirteen years ago, element 112 was discovered by an international team of scientists at the GSI accelerator facility. A few weeks ago, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC, officially confirmed their discovery. In around six months, IUPAC will officially endorse the new element's name. This period is set to allow the scientific community to discuss the suggested name copernicium before the IUPAC naming.

"After IUPAC officially recognized our discovery, we – that is all scientists involved in the discovery – agreed on proposing the name copernicium for the new element 112. We would like to honor an outstanding scientist, who changed our view of the world", says Sigurd Hofmann, head of the discovering team.

Copernicus was born 1473 in Torun; he died 1543 in Frombork, Poland. Working in the field of astronomy, he realized that the planets circle the Sun. His discovery refuted the then accepted belief that the Earth was the center of the universe. His finding was pivotal for the discovery of the gravitational force, which is responsible for the motion of the planets. It also led to the conclusion that the stars are incredibly far away and the universe inconceivably large, as the size and position of the stars does not change even though the Earth is moving. Furthermore, the new world view inspired by Copernicus had an impact on the human self-concept in theology and philosophy: humankind could no longer be seen as the center of the world.

With its planets revolving around the Sun on different orbits, the solar system is also a model for other physical systems. The structure of an atom is like a microcosm: its electrons orbit the atomic nucleus like the planets orbit the Sun. Exactly 112 electrons circle the atomic nucleus in an atom of the new element "copernicium".

Element 112 is the heaviest element in the periodic table, 277 times heavier than hydrogen. It is produced by a nuclear fusion, when bombarding zinc ions onto a lead target. As the element already decays after a split second, its existence can only be proved with the help of extremely fast and sensitive analysis methods. Twenty-one scientists from Germany, Finland, Russia and Slovakia have been involved in the experiments that led to the discovery of element 112.

Since 1981, GSI accelerator experiments have yielded the discovery of six chemical elements, which carry the atomic numbers 107 to 112. The discovering teams at GSI already named five of them: element 107 is called bohrium, element 108 hassium, element 109 meitnerium, element 110 darmstadtium, and element 111 is named roentgenium.

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