Analytical chemistry

On the Constitution of the Atmosphere.

On the Constitution of the Atmosphere., Dalton, John , Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1800-1843), 1/1815, Volume 2, Issue 1, p.267 - 268, (1815)

Synthesis and decay properties of superheavy elements

Abstract: A fundamental outcome of modern nuclear theory is the prediction of the "island of stability" in the region of hypothetical superheavy elements. A significant enhancement in nuclear stability at approaching the closed shells with Z = 114 (possibly 120 and 122) and N = 184 is expected for the nuclei with large neutron excess. For this reason, for the synthesis of nuclei with Z = 112-116 and 118, we chose the reactions 238U, 242,244Pu, 243Am, 245,248Cm, and 249Cf + 48Ca, which are characterized by fusion products with a maximal neutron excess. The formation and decay properties of the heaviest nuclei were registered with the use of a gas-filled recoil separator installed at a 48Ca-beam of the heavy-ion cyclotron. The new nuclides mainly undergo sequential α-decay, which ends with spontaneous fission (SF). The total time of decay ranges from 0.5 ms to ~1 d, depending on the proton and neutron numbers in the synthesized nuclei. The atomic number of the new elements 115 and 113 was confirmed also by an independent radiochemical experiment based on the identification of the neutron-rich isotope 268Db (TSF ~ 30 h), the final product in the chain of α-decays of the odd-odd parent nucleus 288115. The comparison of the decay properties of 29 new nuclides with Z = 104-118 and N = 162-177 gives evidence of the decisive influence of the structure of superheavy elements on their stability with respect to different modes of radioactive decay. The investigations connected with the search for superheavy elements in Nature are also presented.

Synthesis and decay properties of superheavy elements, Oganessian, Yuri , Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2006, Volume 78, Issue 5, p.889 - 904, (2006)

Chemical characterization of element 112

Partial Abstract. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of 283112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived 287114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction12 of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of 283112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides.

Chemical characterization of element 112, Eichler, R., Aksenov N. V., Belozerov A. V., Bozhikov G. A., Chepigin V. I., Dmitriev S. N., Dressler R., Gäggeler H. W., Gorshkov V. A., Haenssler F., et al. , Nature, 5/2007, Volume 447, Issue 7140, p.72 - 75, (2007)

Independent Verification of Element 114 Production in the Ca-48 + Pu-242 Reaction

Independent verification of the production of element 114 in the reaction of 244-MeV 48Ca with 242Pu is presented. Two chains of time- and position-correlated decays have been assigned to 286114 and 287114. The observed decay modes, half-lives, and decay energies agree with published results. The measured cross sections at a center-of-target energy of 244 MeV for the 242Pu(48Ca,3–4n)287,286114 reactions were 1.4(+3.2, -1.2) pb each, which are lower than the reported values.

Independent Verification of Element 114 Production in the Ca-48 + Pu-242 Reaction, Stavsetra, L., Gregorich K. E., Dvorak J., Ellison P. A., Dragojević I., Garcia M. A., and Nitsche H. , Physical Review Letters, Volume 103, Number 13, p.132502, (2009)

Rover Senses Carbonates

Rover Senses Carbonates

This graph, consisting of data from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, shows the light, or spectral, signatures of carbonates - organic molecules common to Earth that form only in water. The detection of trace amounts of carbonates on Mars may be due to an interaction between the water vapor in the atmosphere and minerals on the surface.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Arizona State University

Interstellar Glycine

Abstract. We have searched for interstellar conformer I glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2. An improved search strategy for intrinsically weak molecular lines, involving multisource observations, has been developed and implemented. In total, 82 spectral frequency bands, in the millimeter-wave region, were observed over a 4 yr period; 27 glycine lines were detected in 19 different spectral bands in one or more sourc

Interstellar Glycine, Kuan, Yi‐Jehng, Charnley Steven B., Huang Hui‐Chun, Tseng Wei‐Ling, and Kisiel Zbigniew , The Astrophysical Journal, 08/2003, Volume 593, Issue 2, p.848 - 867, (2003)

From Hydrogenases to Noble Metal-Free Catalytic Nanomaterials for H2 Production and Uptake

Abstract: Interconversion of water and hydrogen in unitized regenerative fuel cells is a promising energy storage framework for smoothing out the temporal fluctuations of solar and wind power. However, replacement of presently available platinum catalysts by lower-cost and more abundant materials is a requisite for this technology to become economically viable. Here, we show that the covalent attachment of a nickel bisdiphosphine–based mimic of the active site of hydrogenase enzymes onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes results in a high–surface area cathode material with high catalytic activity under the strongly acidic conditions required in proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen evolves from aqueous sulfuric acid solution with very low overvoltages (20 millivolts), and the catalyst exhibits exceptional stability (more than 100,000 turnovers). The same catalyst is also very efficient for hydrogen oxidation in this environment, exhibiting current densities similar to those observed for hydrogenase-based materials.

From Hydrogenases to Noble Metal-Free Catalytic Nanomaterials for H2 Production and Uptake, Le Goff, A., Artero V., Jousselme B., Tran P. D., Guillet N., Metaye R., Fihri A., Palacin S., and Fontecave M. , Science, 12/2009, Volume 326, Issue 5958, p.1384 - 1387, (2009)

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