Lithium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species LiLi is 110.21 ±4 kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic LiX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (LiO, LiF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving lithium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

LiH             LiHe
238.049 ±0.04              

Period 2

LiLi LiBe LiB LiC LiN LiO LiF LiNe
110.21 ±4         333.5 ±8.4 577 ±21  

Period 3

LiNa LiMg LiAl LiSi LiP LiS LiCl LiAr
87.181 ±0.001 67.4 ±6.3 175.7 ±14.6     312.5 ±7.5 469 ±13  

Period 4

LiK LiCa LiGa LiGe LiAs LiSe LiBr LiKr
82.0 ±4.2 84.9 ±8.4 133.1 ±14.6       418.8 ±4  

Period 5

LiRb LiSr LiIn LiSn LiSb LiTe LiI LiXe
    92.5 ±14.6   172.8 ±10.0   345.2 ±4.2  

Period 6

LiCs LiBa LiTl LiPb LiBi LiPo LiAt LiRn
      78.7 ±7.9 154.0 ±5.0      

Period 7

LiFr LiRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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lithium atomic number