Indium: the essentials
Indium is a very soft, silvery-white metal with a brilliant lustre. The pure metal gives a high-pitched "scream" when bent. It wets glass, as does gallium. It is useful for making low-melting alloys. An alloy of 24% indium and 76% gallium is liquid at room temperature. Canada produces the majority of of the world's supply of indium.
Indium: historical information
Indium was discovered by Ferdinand Reich and Theodore Richter, who later isolated the metal. It was found and spectroscopically identified as a minor component in zincores. Until 1924, a gram or so constituted the world's supply of this element in isolated form. In fact, it is probably about as abundant as silver.
Indium around us Read more »
Indium has no biological role. In small doses it is said to stimulate the metabolism.
Indium is never found as the free element. Indium usually is associated with zinc minerals, and these form the commercial sources of most indium. It is also found in iron, lead, and copper ores.
|Location||ppb by weight||ppb by atoms||Links|
|Human||(no data) ppb by weight||(no data) atoms relative to C = 1000000|
Physical properties Read more »
- Melting point: 429.75 [156.6 °C (313.88 °F)] K
- Boiling point: 2345 [2072 °C (3762 °F)] K
- Density of solid: 7310 kg m‑
Crystal structure Read more »
The solid state structure of indium is: tetragonal.
Indium: orbital properties Read more »
Indium atoms have 49 electrons and the shell structure is 22.214.171.124.3. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral Indium is [Kr].4d10.5s2.5p1 and the term symbol of Indium is 2P1/2.
- Pauling electronegativity: 1.78 (Pauling units)
- First ionisation energy: 558.3 kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: 1820.7 kJ mol‑1
Isolation: indium would not normally be made in the laboratory as it is commercially available. Indium is a byproduct of the formation of lead and zinc. Indium metal is isolated by the electrolysis of indium salts in water. Further processes are required to make very pure indium for electronics purposes.
Indium isotopes Read more »
Indium has two stable isotopes and one of them, In-113, is used for the production of radioisotopes. In-113 is used for the production of Sn-113 and can also be used for the production of the medical radioisotope In-110, although the most common production route for that radioisotope is via Cd-110.
|Isotope||Mass / Da||Natural
|113In||112.904061 (4)||4.29 (5)||9/2||5.5289|
|115In||114.903882 (4)||95.71 (5)||9/2||5.5408|
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- Indium: the essentials
- Index to indium properties
- Element properties
- Crystal structure
- Physical properties
- Thermochemistry and thermodynamics
- Electron shell properties
- The free atom
- Atom and ion sizes
- Chemistry and compounds
- Reactions of In
- Properties of Indium compounds