Holmium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species HoHo is 84 ±17 kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic HoX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (HoO, HoF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving holmium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

HoH             HoHe

Period 2

HoLi HoBe HoB HoC HoN HoO HoF HoNe
          611 ±17 540  

Period 3

HoNa HoMg HoAl HoSi HoP HoS HoCl HoAr
          428.4 ±14.6    

Period 4

HoK HoCa HoGa HoGe HoAs HoSe HoBr HoKr
          335 ±17    

Period 5

HoRb HoSr HoIn HoSn HoSb HoTe HoI HoXe
          259 ±17    

Period 6

HoCs HoBa HoTl HoPb HoBi HoPo HoAt HoRn

Period 7

HoFr HoRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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