Germanium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species GeGe is 263.6 ±7.1 kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic GeX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (GeO, GeF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving germanium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

GeH             GeHe
<= 321.7              

Period 2

GeLi GeBe GeB GeC GeN GeO GeF GeNe
      460 ±21   659.4 ±12.6 485 ±21  

Period 3

GeNa GeMg GeAl GeSi GeP GeS GeCl GeAr
      301 ±21   551.0 ±25 about 431  

Period 4

GeK GeCa GeGa GeGe GeAs GeSe GeBr GeKr
      263.6 ±7.1   489 ±4 255 ±29  

Period 5

GeRb GeSr GeIn GeSn GeSb GeTe GeI GeXe
          456 ±13    

Period 6

GeCs GeBa GeTl GePb GeBi GePo GeAt GeRn

Period 7

GeFr GeRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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germanium atomic number