Gadolinium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species GdGd is   kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic GdX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (GdO, GdF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving gadolinium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

GdH             GdHe

Period 2

GdLi GdBe GdB GdC GdN GdO GdF GdNe
          719 ±10 590.4 ±27.2  

Period 3

GdNa GdMg GdAl GdSi GdP GdS GdCl GdAr
          526.8 ±10.5    

Period 4

GdK GdCa GdGa GdGe GdAs GdSe GdBr GdKr
          431 ±14.6    

Period 5

GdRb GdSr GdIn GdSn GdSb GdTe GdI GdXe
          343 ±14.6    

Period 6

GdCs GdBa GdTl GdPb GdBi GdPo GdAt GdRn

Period 7

GdFr GdRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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gadolinium atomic number