## Tools of construction of system of elements.

Tools of construction of system of elements.
http://www.genevo.org/B.htm

It is logical, that shown cyclicity for d-elements is shown also in other families.

http://www.genevo.org/Z1.htm

I have tried to simplify last model maximum.

Secondary periodicity see at figure (the schedule of the data).

www.genevo.org/S.htm

In my last work I show secondary periodicity on this property for s-elements on the example of the data on electron affinity. In the same place, on the example of d-elements other logic of the tableis visible, - not periodicity but cyclicity.
Some properties are cyclic and not correspond to the periodic table.
I offer to your attention http://www.genevo.org/H.htm
It is visible on the schedule that on the property of electron affinity s-elements behave variously before p and d-elements . Before р - elements electron affinity grows, before d-falls.
Even on this property it is possible to speak about available laws which are not clear yet.

Secondary periodicity is connected with repeated filling of everyone
orbital by the second electron and with relative positioning of orbitals.
Secondary periodicity is more brightly expressed at last families.

Similarity by orbital structure can be various.
Orbitals may be focused in one direction, thus,
electronic configurations of compared atoms may not coincide.

update www.genevo.org./E.htm

The overjumpings of electrons and the order of orbital filling.

Let's write out electronic formulas 3d-row Sc 3d^1, Ti 3d^2, V 3d^3, Cr 3d^5 4s^1,
Mn 3d^5 4s^2, Fe 3d^6, Co 3d^7, Ni 3d^8, Cu 3d^10 4s^1, Zn 3d^10 4s^2. (4s ^ is underlined only at change). By Pauli's principle one electron on orbital is filling at the beginning. According to this principle let’s add a condition that the first orbitals are connected with orbitals of the previous new family. Previous family for d elements is p-family. P-family has three orbitals. It means that orbitals of Sc, Ti, V are connected with three 2p-orbitals.
See the table at www.genevo.org/E.htm

Further two new orbitals are appeared. One of which considerably differs from others (the assumption is that she is connected with 3s-orbital), the second one without features.
Orbitals of Cr 3d^5 4s^1, Mn 3d^5 4s^2 are filling, further a row Fe 3d^6, Co 3d^7, Ni 3d^8 follows. The electrons of this row take empty seats on orbitals of Sc, Ti, V. Filling of orbitals of Cu, Zn finish filling of orbitals.

See the table at www.genevo.org/E.htm

Under the scheme of connection of orbitals the table is constructed

P.S. About the same scheme of cyclicity it is possible to make for all other families.
Except of cyclicity of orbitals 3 2 3 2 for d-elements, there exist such cyclicities – “reversed”, "regressive" and "progressive". For their construction it is necessary to number orbitals.
But also other cyclicity exists which is connected with growth of number of electrons in atom. When electron is filling , the cyclicity is defined by occurrence of every new electron instead of orbital for two electrons.
Different types of cyclicity connected with representing of different properties of atom.

Don't you want to make some comments? I thought I made a good table. :?: :shock:

Specific properties are inherent in each family of chemical elements.
When constructing the table of periodic specific properties of one element’s family, other families has this property partly (comparably) periodical or as an absent one (is not shown). A parity of families with expressed properties or partly expressed properties or not expressed properties is natural.
Specific properties of element’s families determine the form of the table. All tables are naturally connected.
The continuation of the table of overjumpings of electrons http://www.genevo.org/OD.gif - the table of electrochemical series (fragment). http://www.genevo.org/E.htm
In this periodic table an electrochemical series of potentials of 3d-elements and 5d-elements is very similar. It is shown on the graph. http://www.genevo.org/Ef1.gif And a series of electrochemical potentials of 4d-elements is differing from series of potentials of 3d-elements and 5d-elements. If to turn this series and increase on-1 you see that areas of maxima and minima of this series will coincide with the areas of maxima and minima of electrochemical series of potentials of 3d-elements and 5d-elements. Graph http://www.genevo.org/Ef2.gif

To explain more understandable the overjumpings of electrons I publish my periodic table of overjumpings of electrons. www.genevo.org/OD.gif
www.genevo.org/OF.gif

## Comment viewing options

I couldn't make sense of that at all! -/

What do you mean by "overjumpings of electrons"? is this to do with electron transitions between different configurations (ie, giving rise to emission/absorption spectra?)

[quote="feline1"]I couldn't make sense of that at all! :-/

What do you mean by "overjumpings of electrons"? is this to do with electron transitions between different configurations (ie, giving rise to emission/absorption spectra?)[/quote]

must be for La 4f^1, but really 5d^1,
must be for Cr 3d^4.4s^2., but really 3d^5.4s^1.

Oh, I see!
You mean your periodic table is designed to highlight situations where the ground state electronic configuration of atoms isn't as you might expect from just filling up the orbitals sequentially?

I'm not sure how chemically useful that information really is
(don't those ground state configurations refer to monatomic gas phase species or sthg?)

The first figure www.genevo.org/OD.gif shows periodic overjumpings of electrons which d-elements have. Elements up to violet circle (V, Zr, Ir, Hn) have an external sublevel s^2. Сr, Nd, Pt, Mt, occurs overjumping of electron from s^2 to s^1 (electronic configurations see on http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/H/econ.html) All four elements are connected with an arrow. The same principle have d-elements which have a jump of electron to s^2-sublevel (in figure these elements are connected among themselves with arrows).
The second figure www.genevo.org/OF.gif shows periodic overjumpings of electrons which f-elements have. We see that f-elements at which overjumpings are observed, are similar on structure of a d-sublevel. Similarities are shown with arrows.
In the table periodicity of chemical properties by chemical activity is shown also. Chemical activity determines by orbital and electronic structure. Such elements as Sc, Mn, Zn are most chemically active in d-family. At the figure they are placed around of a column called S 2 in the periodic table. The same it is possible to tell about chemically active р-and f-elements.
This table together with a number of others shows interrelation of orbitals in atom. More in detail about this interrelation in my following work.

Oh right, I understand a bit better now -)

One thing which I think might make it clearer
be careful about the notation you use for electronic levels.....

generally,
atomic orbitals are labelled with the principle quantum number first, and then a lower case letter. (eg 1s, 3d )

and electronic configurations are labelled with the orbital name first (lower case) and then the number of electrons as a superscript
(eg 1s^2 , or just s^2 for a general example)

it's spectroscopic TERM SYMBOLS that use CAPITAL letters
(eg 2S )

[quote="feline1"]Oh right, I understand a bit better now :-)

(eg 1s^2 , or just s^2 for a general example)

it's spectroscopic TERM SYMBOLS that use CAPITAL letters
(eg 2S )[/quote]
Thank :!:

Electron affinity in secondary periodicity for p(f)-elements www.genevo.org/Z1.htm

Still too difficult for me. Can use make it easier to understand?

WebElements: the periodic table on the WWW [http://www.webelements.com/]