Lab questioon

in the article it says dissolved in three fold excess HNO3
what does three fold excess mean

oh here is the orginal article

"Place 3.37 mmol of Y2O3, dissolved in three-fold excess concentrated HNO3, diluted with
twice its volume of deionized water, and evaporated to dryness on the hot plate in a
fumehood; fumes of toxic nitrogen dioxide, NO2, will be liberated)."

thx

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