Europium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species EuEu is 33.5 ±17 kJ mol-1.

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Table of diatomic EuX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (EuO, EuF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving europium to elements of your choice.

Period 1

EuH             EuHe

Period 2

EuLi EuBe EuB EuC EuN EuO EuF EuNe
66.9 ±2.9         479 ±10 544  

Period 3

EuNa EuMg EuAl EuSi EuP EuS EuCl EuAr
          362.3 ±13.0 about 326  

Period 4

EuK EuCa EuGa EuGe EuAs EuSe EuBr EuKr
          301 ±14.6    

Period 5

EuRb EuSr EuIn EuSn EuSb EuTe EuI EuXe
          243 ±14.6    

Period 6

EuCs EuBa EuTl EuPb EuBi EuPo EuAt EuRn

Period 7

EuFr EuRa            


I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).


  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

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europium atomic number