Lithium compounds: lithium chloride
The lithium in lithium chloride formally is in the oxidation state 1.
- Formula as often written: LiCl
- Hill system formula: Cl1Li1
- CAS registry number: [7447-41-8]
- Formula weight: 42.394
- Class: chloride
- lithium chloride
- lithium(I) chloride
- Colour: white
- Appearance: crystalline solid
- Melting point: 610°C
- Boiling point: 1360°C; 1383°C
- Density: 2070 kg m-3
Element percentages for the elements in lithium chloride
One way to make lithium chloride is to react the hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The resulting salt can then be purified by recrystallization. Another, slightly alarmingly, is by the thermal decompostion of lithium(I) perchlorate, LiClO4.
LiOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → LiCl(aq) + H2O(l)
LiClO4(s) + heat → LiCl(s) + 2O2(g)
While not a normal route of preparation because of the expense, lithium metal reacts vigorously with all the halogens to form sodium halides. So, it burns with chlorine, Cl2, to form lithium(I) chloride, LiCl.
2Li(s) + Cl2(g) → 2LiCl(s)
Solid state structure
- Geometry of lithium: 6 coordinate: octahedral
- Prototypical structure: NaCl (rock salt)
What follows is the calculated isotope pattern for the LiCl unit with the most intense ion set to 100%.
41 8.1 ____
42 100.0 __________________________________________________
43 2.6 _
44 32.0 ________________
The data on these compounds pages are assembled and adapted from the primary literature and several other sources including the following.
- R.T. Sanderson in Chemical Periodicity, Reinhold, New York, USA, 1960.
- N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw in Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth, UK, 1997.
- F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C.A. Murillo, and M. Bochmann, in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
- A.F. Trotman-Dickenson, (ed.) in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1973.
- R.W.G. Wyckoff, in Crystal Structures, volume 1, Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, 1963.
- A.R.West in Basic solid state chemistry Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
- A.F. Wells in Structural inorganic chemistry, 4th edition, Oxford, UK, 1975.
- J.D.H. Donnay, (ed.) in Crystal data determinative tables, ACA monograph number 5, American Crystallographic Association, USA, 1963.
- D.R. Lide, (ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 77th edition, 1996.
- J.W. Mellor in A comprehensive treatise on inorganic and theoretical chemistry, volumes 1-16, Longmans, London, UK, 1922-1937.
- J.E. Macintyre (ed.) in Dictionary of inorganic compounds, volumes 1-3, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1992.